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Full text of "Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign : a history, 1951-1988"

DEPARTMENT 



AGRONOMY 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

AT 

URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 

A HISTORY 
19 5 1-19 8 8 

By Robert W. Howell 

and 

Russell T. Odell 






UNIVERSITY OP 

ILLINOIS AT/ 

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DEPARTMENT 

OF 

AGRONOMY 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

AT 

URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 



vS^TD 



A HISTORY 



1951-1988 



vS^T^ 



By Robert W. Howell 

and 

Russell T. Odell 



Editor & Publisher: Chris Scherer, Scherer Communications, Urbana, IL 
Designer: Gretchen Walters, Studio 2D, Champaign, IL 
Printer: Cushing-Malloy, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI 



Copyright © Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, 

University of Illinois, 1989 

2.5M 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

ii Foreword 

iii Acknowledgements 

1 Introduction 

1 7 Teaching 

24 Extension 

29 Corn Breeding/Genetics 

37 Soybean Breeding/Genetics 

45 Small Grains 

48 Forages 

51 Crop Physiology 

58 Other Crops 

62 Biotechnology 

65 Crop Evolution Laboratory 

70 Weed Science 

75 Soil Chemistry and Fertility 

81 Pedology and Mineralogy 

93 Soil Physics 

97 Soil Microbiology 

99 Production Practices 

102 Environmental Management 

111 Agronomy Field Research Centers 

117 Biometry 

119 International Agronomy 

APPENDICES 

128 1. Faculty Members 

134 2. Field Research Center Personnel 

135 3. Post Doctoral Research Associates 

139 4. Cooperating USDA Scientists Housed In 

Agronomy 

140 5. State Advisory Committee Members 
142 6. Master of Science Degrees Awarded 
158 7. Doctor of Philosophy Degrees Awarded 



FOREWORD 



The Department of Agronomy at the University of Illinois 
was founded in 1899 as the first "Agronomy" department in 
the United States. It also is the oldest department in the 
University of Illinois' College of Agriculture. "Through the 
Years with the Department of Agronomy," by O. H. Sears, F. 
C. Bauer, G. H. Dungan, J. C. Hackleman, and C. M. Wood- 
worth, published in 1960 as Special Publication 1 of the 
University of Illinois College of Agriculture, captured the 
history of the first half century of Agronomy at Illinois. 
When it became evident to me that many changes that have 
occurred in recent decades had not been recorded, I asked Dr. 
Robert W. Howell, former Department Head, and Dr. Russell 
T. Odell, Emeritus Professor of Pedology, to undertake the 
task of compiling the history of this Department. They ac- 
cepted the challenge and have done a remarkable job of 
researching the topic over the past two years. They have 
written a most interesting account of our history. I hope you 
enjoy reading it as much as I did. Thanks, Bob and Russ, for a 
fantastic job! 



L. E. Schrader, 
Department Head, 1984-89. 



n 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Many people have provided valuable assistance in the 
preparation of this History of the Department of Agronomy, 
for which we are most appreciative. All or parts of the manu- 
script have been read by a great many people in the Depart- 
ment, thus enabling us to avoid some errors and, very impor- 
tantly, making it possible to draw on their own records and 
recollections. The figures include many photographs and 
charts which have been graciously provided. We thank every- 
one for their interest and for their contributions to this 
project. We have concentrated on the Department's history 
since 1951; earlier history is recounted in "Through the Years 
with the Department of Agronomy" published in 1960 and 
"Fields of Rich Toil." 



Robert W. Howell 

Russell T. Odell 

Professors Emeriti 

August 1989 



in 



1 

Introduction 



1868 - 1950 

Agronomy, the study of crops and soils, has been an inte- 
gral part of the University of Illinois programs since the 
establishment of the institution as the Illinois Industrial 
University in 1868, pursuant to the Land Grant Act of 1862. 

Initially, the staff in agriculture was small and the empha- 
sis was on teaching. But in 1876, the Morrow Plots were 
initiated by Manley Miles to study the long-time effects of 
different cropping systems with and without soil treatments 
on one of our best dark colored prairie soils. The Plots (Fig. 1) 
were made permanent on the recommendation of George E. 
Morrow, who had joined the staff in 1876 as Professor of 
Agriculture and then became the first Dean of Agriculture, 
1878-1894. The Plots, later named for Professor Morrow (Fig. 
2), are the oldest continuous soil experimental plots in the 
United States and were designated a national historical land- 
mark in 1968. Today, they are still providing valuable infor- 
mation. 

In 1887, Congress passed the Hatch Act, which authorized 
an agricultural experiment station in each state "to promote 
scientific investigation and experimentation respecting the 
principles and application of agricultural science/ 7 The Illi- 
nois Agricultural Experiment Station was founded in 1888 




Fig. 1. The Morrow Plots, established in 1876 and now the oldest experi- 
ment field in continuous use in the United States, were designated a Na- 
tional Historical Landmark in 1968. 



and the Dean of Agriculture also became Director of the 
Station in 1896. 

After Eugene Davenport became Dean of Agriculture in 
1895, instruction, research programs, and physical facilities 
were improved. Many details concerning these and other 
developments during the growth of the College of Agricul- 
ture are given in Fields of Rich Toil by Richard G. Moores, 
University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, 1970. 

Three years of intensive effort by Dean Davenport and the 
strong support of farmers resulted in the state legislature 
providing $150,000 in 1899 to build the Agriculture Build- 
ing, renamed Davenport Hall in 1947. This building provided 
the first satisfactory facilities on campus for agriculture work. 
The Department of Agronomy occupied space in Davenport 
Hall until 1978. 

In 1914 Congress passed the Smith-Lever Act, which au- 
thorized cooperation between the Land-Grant institutions 
and the U. S. Department of Agriculture "in the giving of 
instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and 
home economics. ..to persons not attending or resident 
in... colleges. " Each state was required to match federal funds. 
This Act enabled Land-Grant institutions to organize a 




Fig. 2. George E. Morrow, the first 
Dean of the College of Agriculture, 
for whom the Morrow Plots were 
named. 



system of county extension 
workers to transfer results of 
research to farmers and home- 
makers. This program is now 
known as the Cooperative Ex- 
tension Service; Agronomy 
was then and remains today, a 
major participant in this out- 
of-school educational effort. 

The Department of Agron- 
omy was officially established 
August 16, 1899, as a unit of 
the College of Agriculture. 
Perry G. Holden, who had 
been an assistant professor of 
agricultural physics (soils and 
crops) since 1896, served as the 
first Head of the Department. 
Later he worked with several 
agricultural companies and at 
Iowa State College. 

Cyril G. Hopkins became 
Head of the Department in 1900 and served until his death in 
1919. Hopkins had a strong influence on the direction of the 
Department, an influence that can still be seen. He initiated a 
state-wide program which included a comprehensive survey 
of Illinois soils, chemical analysis of different kinds of soils, 
and experimental fields strategically located throughout the 
state. Similar programs, in modified form to meet current 
needs, still exist in the department. 

Early work in corn breeding produced significant results. 
Two 1884 graduates of the College of Agriculture, George W. 
McCluer and Thomas F. Hunt, did some self-fertilization and 
cross-fertilization experiments with corn, possibly as early as 
1886. In 1892 McCluer reported the results of these experi- 
ments, which agreed with previously published but little 
known reports on the mechanism of inheritance. After 
McCluer left Illinois in 1896 or 1897, Archibald D. Shamel, 
Perry G. Holden, Edward M. East, and Louie H. Smith contin- 
ued some of these breeding experiments, which helped pro- 
vide the foundation for hybrid corn. East, BS01; MS04; and 
PhD07 (the first PhD to be awarded in the Department of 



Agronomy), left Illinois in 1905 to go to the Connecticut 
Agricultural Experiment Station and later to Harvard Univer- 
sity. He became widely recognized as one of the "fathers" of 
hybrid corn. 

In 1896, Hopkins and his associates inaugurated a series of 
experiments to change the oil and protein content of 'Burr 
White' corn by continuous selection. These classical studies 
are still in progress, with continuous selection for high and 
low protein content and high and low oil content. One of the 
first commercial double-cross hybrid corn varieties, produced 
in Connecticut in 1919, involved two Illinois inbreds. One 
was from the Illinois high-protein strain and another from 
the Illinois low-protein strain. 

William L. Burlison became Head of the Department in 
1920, serving until 1951. During this period there was a 
dramatic increase in acres, production, and yield of soybeans. 
Soybeans replaced oats and, to a lesser extent, forages to 
become the second, after corn, most important crop in Illi- 
nois. A key element in these cropping shifts was the breeding 
of higher-yielding soybean varieties by Clyde M. Woodworth, 
who came to the University of Illinois in 1920. He and his 




Fig. 3. Department of Agronomy staff 1926. Front row: W. R. Tascher, A. L. 
Lang, R. S. Stauffer, D. C. Maxwell, F. L. Winter, John Lamb, Jr., R. H. Bray, 
C. M. Woodworth, M. R. Isaacson, D. C. Wimer; Second Row: V. E. Spencer, 
H. A. Lunt, F. W. Gault, J. E. McKittrick, F. H. Crane, L. F. Rickey, F. M. 
Clark, E. A. Hollowell (USDA), R. W. Stark, A. U. Thor; Third row: F. E. 
Schlots, L. H. Smith, M. A. Hein, N. A. Pettinger, J. C. Hackleman, B. J. 
Koehler, J. J. Pieper, W. R. Carroll, R. W. Cowart, F. C. Bauer, W. R. Paden, 
C. J. Badger; Fourth row: H. J. Snider, L. Allen, A. A. Endres, R. S. Smith, 
L. B. Miller, O. H. Sears, M. B. Harlan; Fifth row: W. L. Burlison (Head of 
Department), C. C. Chapman, and G. H. Dungan. Not pictured: E. E. 
DeTurk, C. M. Linsley, E. A. Norton, and H. L. Wascher. 



associates developed and released soybean varieties such as 
Tllini', 'Ilsoy', 'Chief, and 'Viking', which had progressively 
greater yield potential and disease resistance. Jay C. Hackle- 
man, an ardent extensionist, together with Burlison, also 
made great contributions to agricultural industry by encour- 
aging farmers to grow soybeans and companies to process 
them into oil and meal. In 1936 the U. S. Regional Soybean 
Laboratory was established at the University of Illinois under 
the Bankhead-Jones Act. The Regional Laboratory assumed 
increasing responsibility for variety development. Since that 
time, soybean research in the Department of Agronomy has 
been conducted cooperatively with USDA. 'Lincoln 7 , which 
originated from a cross made by Woodworth, was the first 
variety to be released from the cooperative program. 

The USDA also stationed research scientists in the Depart- 
ment to work on cooperative programs in forages and cereal 
diseases. Cooperation with USDA in soil survey work was 
resumed in 1943, following a period of several decades when 
the soil survey work in Illinois had proceeded independently 
of that being done by USDA. USDA soil scientists were sta- 
tioned in the Department beginning in 1946. 

1951 - 1988 

Dr. Burlison was succeeded as Department Head in 1951 by 
M. B. Russell, a soil physicist who had been on the faculty at 
Cornell University. Major changes in departmental phil- 
osophy and directions occurred during and subsequent to Dr. 
Russell's leadership of the Department. Activities which had 
been aimed toward developing a product, or performing 
certain services for public clientele, were de-emphasized and 
supplanted by a greater emphasis on research. This research 
was designed to develop new knowledge and educational 
programs to communicate that knowledge to users outside 
the university. 

The program in soil survey, which had fielded many map- 
ping teams in counties throughout the state, had begun to 
change after cooperative soil survey work was resumed with 
the USD A/Soil Conservation Service (SCS) in 1943. From 
1951 to 1966 there was a gradual shift in the sphere of 
activity in soil genesis and classification in Illinois. Depart- 
ment staff members began devoting more of their effort to 




Fig 4. Department faculty and staff 1953. Front row: A. U. Thor, O. H. 
Sears, C. M. Woodworth, G. H. Dungan, F. C. Bauer, M. B. Russell (Dept. 
Head), O. T. Bonnett, D. C. Wimer, B. Koehler, A. L. Lang, C. M. Linsley. 
Second row: D. A. Russel, L. F. Bauman, J. C. Gideon, L. T. Kurtz, W. O. 
Scott, R. S. Stauffer, E. A. Thum, J. B. Fehrenbacher, R. W. Howell (USDA/ 
ARS), O. A. Krober (USDA/ARS), D. W. Chamberlain (USDA/ARS), J. W. 
Pendleton. Third row: B. W. Ray, C. E. Burt (USDA/ARS), D. E. Alexander, 
R. H. Maier, F. W. Slife, R. D. Osier (USDA/ARS), E. H. Tyner, F. J. Steven- 
son, L. B. Miller, A. H. Beavers, W. C. Jacob, J. A. Jackobs, J. W. Gerde- 
mann. Fourth row: B. B. Tucker, E. Inselberg, R. Ahmad, H. L. Portz, S. W. 
Melsted, T. C. Tucker, R. A. Bohannon, J. R. Gingrich, W. M. Bever (USDA/ 
ARS), R. T. Odell, J. H. Muntz, A. Klute. Fifth row: G. R. Bauwin, H. N. 
Mehrotra, J. L. Cartter (USDA/ARS), R. E. Ohms, P. G. Rothman, A. W. 
Burger, R. J. Smith, R. R. Bruce, E. R. Leng, L. E. Haley, R. E. Danielson. 
Sixth row: R. M. Steele, W. F. Purnell, R. D. Hauck, A. R. Taylor, J. D. 
Alexander, C. H. Farnham. 



pedology research, graduate training, and soil correlation. 
The SCS assumed major responsibility for soil mapping and 
publication of soil survey reports. 

During this period the development of soil test laboratories 
in the private sector was encouraged. As a consequence, the 
number of soil tests completed in Illinois has been greater, 
sometimes much greater, than in any other state. The Depart- 
ment continued to play a major role in training personnel for 
soil testing laboratories and in maintaining standards and 
quality control, ensuring not only quantity but high quality 
in soil testing. 

Production of inbreds in the Department for the hybrid 
corn industry was essentially discontinued by the early 1950s, 
while the corn breeding group gained strength and recogni- 
tion through its basic research and innovative activities such 
as the Corn Breeders School. 



A program in plant physiology was initiated. With the 
employment of John B. Hanson in 1953 and Richard H. 
Hageman in 1954, the foundation was laid for a program in 
plant physiology dealing with the problems of crop produc- 
tion. Departing from the traditional "whole plant" approach, 
Hanson and Hageman, along with their students and associ- 
ates, began investigating the roles of cell components and 
enzyme systems in crop performance. The USD A assigned an 
increasing number of physiologists to the Department and in 
1976 made UIUC the site of its major effort in photosynthesis 
research. 

Modern statistics were introduced in the Department with 
the establishment of a biometry group, led by Walter C. Jacob 
in 1954. The biometry group has created for faculty and 
students an awareness of the importance of proper experi- 
mental design and statistical analysis of experimental data. 

Research throughout the state had been conducted for 
many years on a large number of small "soil experiment 
fields" which had been initiated by Hopkins. A shift to larger 
regional centers started in the 1930s with the establishment 
of the Brownstown Agronomy Research Center and the multi- 
department Dixon Springs Agricultural Center (DSAC). This 
trend continued with new centers being established in 
DeKalb, Will, Pike, Warren, and Mason Counties. The last 
small field was discontinued in 1983. 

The Department was a campus leader in teacher evalu- 
ation. A rating system, developed in the Department, by 
which students could evaluate course materials and instruc- 
tion preceded by many years the adoption of a campus-wide 
system. Graduate student numbers increased from about 15 
in 1951 to more than 100 currently. 

Cooperation with USDA became closer and more exten- 
sive. The USDA sent scientists to the Department to work on 
corn biochemistry and genetics, weed science, and soybean 
physiology. With few exceptions, early USDA personnel had 
not received University appointments, did not participate in 
graduate student advising, and had limited access to Univer- 
sity facilities such as the library. Exceptions were based on 
part-time salaried service to the University. When Louis B. 
Howard became Dean of Agriculture in the 1950s, USDA 
scientists were appointed collaborators, receiving for the first 
time University identification cards which gave them access 



to University facilities. Appointments to the graduate faculty 
and to non-salaried professorial positions, on an individual 
basis, soon followed. Professor Wayne M. Bever, then Head of 
the Department of Plant Pathology, a former member of the 
Department of Agronomy and a USDA scientist, was instru- 
mental in obtaining the first such faculty appointment for 
Robert M. Endo, a USDA plant pathologist. John B. Hanson 
was instrumental in securing the first such appointment in 
Agronomy, for Robert W. Howell, at the time a plant physi- 
ologist in the U. S. Regional Soybean Laboratory. It soon 
became customary to appoint qualified USDA scientists as 
non-salaried faculty members. 

During its history, the Department has been the parent of 
several other departments. The Departments of Agricultural 
Economics and of Agricultural Engineering were organized to 
serve missions originally included in the Department of 
Agronomy. More recently, the Department of Plant Pathol- 
ogy was established in 1955, drawing faculty from Agronomy 
as well as other plant science departments. 

Dr. Russell became Director of the Illinois Agricultural 
Experiment Station in 1962 and was succeeded as Depart- 
ment Head by Marlowe D. Thorne, a soil physicist. Dr. Thorne 
had had a varied career at the Pineapple Research Institute of 
Hawaii, the USDA, and just before coming to Illinois, as head 
of the Department of Agronomy at Oklahoma State Univer- 
sity. 

The Department moved into other new areas during Dr. 
Thome's tenure as Head. The Crop Evolution Laboratory was 
established when Jack R. Harlan and Johannes M. J. deWet 
joined the Department from Oklahoma State University in 
1966 and 1967, respectively. An unusual team for an Agron- 
omy Department, Harlan and deWet roamed the world in the 
study of the evolution of modern crop plants from their 
primitive ancestors, and the association of the evolution of 
crops with the evolution of civilizations. 

Members of the Department have long been interested in 
agriculture on an international scale. Cyril G. Hopkins went 
to Greece after World War I to help in the food rehabilitation 
of that country. He died at Gibraltar in 1919 on his way 
home. George H. Dungan took a two-year assignment in 
India in 1953, presaging an involvement on an international 



scale that increased for the next three decades. Major univer- 
sity development projects were undertaken in Sierra Leone 
and at Jabalpur and Pantnagar in India. Soybeans became a 
major research and demonstration tool in India, leading to 
the establishment of the International Soybean Program 
(INTSOY). INTSOY developed contracts in Sri Lanka and 
Peru, and had Agronomy faculty and staff on long-term 
assignments in those countries and in Puerto Rico, at the 
International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) in Co- 
lombia, and at the Asian Vegetable Research and Develop- 
ment Center (AVRDC) in Taiwan. These programs and other 
activities attracted a large number of students and scholars 
from abroad to the Department. 

As public concern for the environment increased, the De- 
partment, under leadership of Thomas D. Hinesly, began in 




Fig 5. Davenport Hall, home of the Department of Agronomy for many 
years. President Andrew S. Draper's statement, "The wealth of Illinois is 
in her soil and her strength lies in its intelligent development, " is on the 
frieze of Davenport Hall. This 90-year-old statement continues to provide 
motivation and purpose to the teaching, research, and extension work of 
soils and crops at the University of Illinois. Elements of the Department 
remained here until 1978. 



10 



1967 a major project related to the use of municipal wastes 
on farm land. This project was in cooperation with the Met- 
ropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago and the Envi- 
ronmental Protection Agency. Emotions often ran high as 
people saw their land viewed as a dumping ground for urban 
wastes. The municipal waste project was completed and ter- 
minated in 1982. 

The reclamation of land which had been strip-mined for 
coal was another highly emotional issue studied for several 
years by a task force led by Joe B. Fehrenbacher, before 
research began in 1976, under leadership of Ivan J. Jansen. 
During the years 1974 - 1981 the task force worked closely 
with legislative sponsors of strip mine legislation, and with 
the Illinois Department of Mines and Minerals. The strip 
mine reclamation study continues today as an important 
activity in the Department. 

Environmental concerns later focused on the effects of so- 
called acid rain on crops. A project to study these effects was 
initiated at the Agronomy-Plant Pathology South Farm in 
1982, under leadership of Wayne L. Banwart. Movable green- 
houses, with equipment for closing and re-opening quickly 




Fig. 6. Turner Hall, home of the Department of Agronomy. Phase I was 
completed in 1963; it provided space for about half the Department. Phase 
II was not completed until 1978, at which time all elements of the Depart- 
ment, plus the Department of Plant Pathology were housed here. 



11 

at the on-set and conclusion of precipitation, and capability 
of applying simulated rainfall of known composition were 
constructed. After several years study, it appeared that any 
effects on corn and soybeans in Illinois were minor. 

As the south campus developed and agriculture depart- 
ments and administration moved to new facilities south of 
the quadrangle, Agronomy remained in Davenport Hall. But 
in 1963, when Turner Hall Phase I was completed and dedi- 
cated the Department began to move. The new building 
provided facilities for about half the Department's programs. 
Remaining in Davenport Hall were the physiology, weed 
science, some of the plant breeding, and most of the USDA 
laboratories. It was not until 15 years later, 1978, that Turner 
Hall Phase II was completed. The remaining Department 
units then moved from Davenport Hall to Turner Hall, which 
also provided facilities for the Department of Plant Pathol- 
ogy. Until completion of Turner Hall Phase II, Plant Pathol- 
ogy staff members had been scattered in numerous buildings 
where they had been located before the department was 
established. 

As part of the ceremonies dedicating Turner Hall Phase I, 
three osage orange (Madura pomifera) trees were planted just 
north of the building as a memorial to Jonathan Baldwin 
Turner, who had advocated using such trees for fencing on 
pioneer farms and for whom Turner Hall was named. One of 
the trees survived only a short time. A second was removed at 
the time Turner Hall Phase II was constructed. The last one 
was removed in 1988 to make way for the Plant and Animal 
Biotechnology Building. 

Dr. Thorne stepped down as Department Head in 1970 to 
take an assignment in India. He was succeeded in 1971 by 
Robert W. Howell, a USDA plant physiologist who had been 
in the U. S. Regional Soybean Laboratory from 1952 to 1965. 

The decade of the 1970s was a period of financial stress and 
austerity. The strong economy and the vigorous support of 
science which had existed since the end of World War II 
softened. Many sources of research funding disappeared or 
the level of funding declined. High inflation reduced buying 
power, increasing operating costs of programs. State appro- 
priations, in particular, were under great pressure. Interna- 
tional programs in India and Sierra Leone ended. Senior 
faculty members returned from overseas assignments. Some 



12 

of them retired, but others were reassigned within the De- 
partment. Some younger faculty members, whose salaries 
had been on contract or grant funds that were no longer 
available, or on lapsed salaries of those on foreign assign- 
ments, had to be transferred to other funding sources, plac- 
ing further demands on declining Departmental resources. 

Very few faculty positions were lost, but there were drastic 
effects on support funds for teaching and research in many 
areas. The number of teaching assistants declined. Vacant 
technician positions were sometimes left vacant, or were 
transferred to non-appropriated funds. Equipment for the 
Agronomy Farm and Research Centers, which had frequently 
been leased from manufacturers or dealers, deteriorated as 
companies moved away from lease policies. High replace- 
ment costs made it necessary to continue using equipment 
beyond its normal life, or in some cases to do without. 

Faculty members increasingly had to look to grant or con- 
tract sources for support funds, but these were concentrated 
in areas of interest to the grantors. While some areas in the 
Department were able to compete effectively for grant funds, 
many areas of importance to the Department had little suc- 
cess in finding outside funds. By 1986 more than half of the 
Department budget came from "soft" sources. Flexibility in 
programming declined. 

Questions of salary equity were prime topics for discussion 
in the 1970s. Faculty members in the College of Agriculture 
were usually appointed for 12 months of service (one month 
vacation), whereas most faculty members in other colleges 
were on academic year (9 month) contracts. Agriculture sala- 
ries were not fairly represented in salary comparisons with 
other colleges, many of whose faculty members had addi- 
tional summer contracts, although reported salaries did not 
reflect the summer service. After considerable discussion, 
academic year (9-month) appointments were introduced in 
the College of Agriculture in 1980. By the mid-1980s, College 
policy was to make new appointments in research and teach- 
ing on academic year contracts. 

The Department was in the forefront of the wave of bio- 
technology, beginning in a small way when Jack M. Widholm 
joined the department in 1968. This trend accelerated rapidly 
beginning about 1981 as large grants became available from 



13 






Fig. 7. Heads of the Department of Agronomy, 1899 - 1989. Perry G. 
Holden, 1899-1900; Cyril G. Hopkins, 1900-1919; William L. Burlison, 1920- 
1951; M. B. Russell, 1951-1963; Marlowe D. Thorne, 1963-1970; Robert W. 
Howell, 1971-1982; Donald A. Holt, 1982-1983; Lawrence E. Schrader, 
1984-1989. 



Agrigenetics, Inc., and the Standard Oil Co. (Ohio). The 
SOHIO five-year grant to establish a Center of Excellence in 
Molecular Genetics enabled the Department to set up new 
faculty positions and markedly increase its emphasis on bio- 
technology. 

Following Howell's retirement in 1982, Donald A. Holt of 
Purdue University became Department Head, the first of the 
Department's own BS graduates to head the Department. 
Holt brought an increased interest in computerization and 
biotechnology during a short tenure that lasted only until 
October 1983, when he became Director of the Illinois Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. He was succeeded in late 1984 
by Lawrence E. Schrader, a 1967 PhD graduate of the Depart- 
ment who had been on the faculty of the University of 
Wisconsin. 

Dr. Schrader served as Department Head until August 1989. 
During this 5-year period, several faculty trained in use of 
modern tools of molecular biology/genetics were added to 



14 

complement existing crop improvement programs of plant 
breeders and physiologists/biochemists in Agronomy. USD A/ 
ARS (Agriculture Research Service) cooperated with the De- 
partment by adding a soil microbiologist/chemist and a mo- 
lecular geneticist. The Department added faculty in soil phys- 
ics, soil and water management, and irrigation/drainage who 
emphasize water quality in their research. Adaptive research 
was enhanced by adding another faculty member in crop 
production/field physiology to conduct production efficiency 
research that will lower farmers' input costs per unit of pro- 
duction; two staff with doctorates in soil fertility were hired 
as superintendents at outlying Agronomy research centers; 
and major facilities were constructed at the Agronomy Farm, 
renamed Agronomy/Plant Pathology South Farm, and the 
Brownstown Research Center. In 1985, an off-campus master 
of science program in Agronomy was initiated to provide 
graduate training opportunities at night to extension advis- 
ers, soil conservation service employees, vocational agricul- 
ture teachers, and others. Dr. Schrader resigned in August 
1989 to become Dean of the College of Agriculture and Home 
Economics at Washington State University. 

Two faculty members served for extended periods as acting 
Department Head. Fred W. Slife served in that capacity in 
1970-71 between the administrations of Thorne and Howell. 
It was a period of very difficult financial retrenchment. Slife 
provided outstanding leadership as the Department made 
very hard decisions concerning staff and program reductions. 
Charles M. Brown was acting Department Head between the 
terms of Holt and Schrader and again after Schrader resigned. 
His excellent leadership enabled the Department to maintain 
its effectiveness despite the uncertainties of the Department's 
future as the search for a new Head proceeded. 

Since 1951 the Department has greatly increased its em- 
phasis on basic research and has broadened its interests be- 
yond projects seeking immediate solutions to farm problems. 
This has brought a change in the make-up of faculty and 
students. The faculty has become more heterogeneous, with 
more from non-agricultural backgrounds or with training not 
typical of agricultural faculties of the past. More students 
than formerly now come from urban backgrounds, from 
other countries, or have interest in "science for science's 



15 



sake". The number of women and minority students has 
increased. Job opportunities for such graduates have been 
excellent. 




Fig. 8. Department Faculty - 1988. Front row: C. M. Brown (Asso. Dept. 
Head), F. E. Below, R. W. Rinne (USDA/ARS), L. E. Schrader (Dept. Head). 
Second row: J. T. Woolley (USDA/ARS), D. W. Graffis, C. D. Nickell, A. G. 
Hepburn, D. A. Miller, R. G. Hoeft, L. F. Welch, R. J. Lambert. Third row: M. 
G. Huck (USDA/ARS), L. O. Vodkin, F. J. Stevenson, I. J. Jansen, D. B. 
Peters (USDA/ARS), A. R. Portis (USDA/ARS), W. L. Ogren (USDA/ARS), K. 
R. Olson, E. D. Nafziger. Fourth row: R. D. Seif, T. R. Peck, J. W. Stucki, J. 
W. Dudley, F. L. Kolb, C. W. Boast, T. Hymowitz, G. E. Pepper, W. L. 
Banwart, E. W. Stoller (USDA/ARS). Fifth row: E. B. Patterson, E. L. Knake, 
L. M. Wax (USDA/ARS), F. W. Simmons, R. A. Liebl, A. L. Rayburn, R. M. 
Vanden Heuvel, R. L. Mulvaney, A. L. Kriz, W. M. Walker, D. P. Briskin. 
Back row: D. G. Bullock, R. H. Teyker, T. J. Bicki, J. J. Hassett, R. L. Jones, 
J. M. Widholm, J. E. Harper (USDA/ARS), J. J. Nicholaides, E. M. Orozco 
(USDA/ARS). Not pictured: P. C. Baveye, R. L. Bernard (USDA/ARS), S. G. 
Carmer, M. A. Cole, R. L. Courson, R. G. Darmody, M. B. David, A. G. 
Endress (Nat.His.Surv.), R. A. Griffin (Geol.Surv.), J. D. Hesketh (USDA/ 
ARS),T. D. Hinesly, S. E. Hollinger (Water Surv.), D. A. Holt, C. J. Kaiser, G. 
Kapusta (SIU), J. R. Laughnan, M. D. McGlamery, R. L. Nelson (USDA/ARS), 
M. J. Plewa, W. R. Roy (Geol. Surv.), D. M. Steffensen, D. G. White, H. T. 
Wilkinson, C. M. Wilson (USDA/ARS). 



16 

The Plant Variety Protection Act and the emergence of 
genetic engineering in the private sector have caused major 
changes in the relationship of the Department programs to 
other institutions, especially those in the private sector. 
Whereas traditional policy gave all commercial interests equal 
access to unpatented results of Departmental research, it has 
become accepted that the results or products of jointly con- 
ducted or privately funded research may be acquired prefer- 
entially by a private entity. 

Many honors have come to members of the Department. 
More than 30 have been elected Fellows of the American 
Society of Agronomy-Crop Science Society of America-Soil 
Science Society of America(ASA-CSSA-SSSA). Twenty one fac- 
ulty members have received major awards from ASA-CSSA- 
SSSA, three receiving awards in two categories. Two have 
received awards of the American Society of Plant Physiolo- 
gists (ASPP), and one of the American Chemical Society. 
These include: Agronomic Research: Bernard, Stevenson, 
Hageman; International Service: Harlan; Crops and Soils 
Magazine: J.D. Alexander, Fehrenbacher; Honorary ASA 
Member: Sprague, Russell; Crop Science: Sprague, Hanson, 
Hageman, D. E. Alexander, Harlan, Ogren; DeKalb-Pfizer: 
Sprague; Young Crop Scientist: Briskin; Meyer: Harlan, Hymo- 
witz; Soil Science: Stevenson; Truog: R. Mulvaney; SSSA Dis- 
tinguished Service: Kurtz; Honorary SSSA Member: Russell 
and Kurtz. 

Five — Burlison, Russell, Thorne, Holt, and Harlan — have 
been elected president of ASA, CSSA, or SSSA; three — Hanson, 
Boyer, Schrader — have become president of the ASPP; two — 
Slife and Knake — have served as president of the Weed Sci- 
ence Society of America (WSSA). Fourteen have received the 
Paul A. Funk award. Two, Jack R. Harlan and William L. 
Ogren, have been elected to the National Academy of Sci- 
ences. A third, George F. Sprague, was already a member of 
N.A.S. when he joined the Department. Eight have served as 
editors or associate editors of professional journals. The De- 
partment's undergraduate student club, The Field and Furrow 
Club, has dominated competition among college agronomy 
clubs nationwide, winning "Best Agronomy Club" 18 times; 
several members have served as president of the Student 
Activities Section-American Society of Agronomy. 



2 

Teaching 



Teaching has always had a high priority in the Department 
and that priority has continued to the present time. The 
"modern era" of teaching in the Department may be said to 
have begun with the retirement of Professors George H. 
Dungan, the long-time teacher of the introductory course in 
crop science, in 1953, and David C. Wimer, who had taught 
the introductory course in soil science, in 1961. 

Professor Ambrose W. Burger joined the faculty in 1953 
and was given the responsibility for the introductory course 
in crop science, Agronomy 121, from that time until his 
retirement in 1986. Since then, responsibility for the intro- 
ductory crop science course has been shared by Robert H. 
Teyker, who joined the faculty in 1985, and Gary E. Pepper, 
who previously had been assigned to full-time duties in soy- 
bean extension work. 

After the retirement of Professor Wimer, several people 
were responsible for the introductory soil science course, 
Agronomy 101, later Soils 101: Burns R. Sabey, John J. Has- 
sett, Wayne L. Banwart, Robert H. Beck, and Richard M. 
Vanden Heuvel. Beginning about 1980, a rotational system 
was instituted to provide the lead instructor with an occa- 
sional semester when he would be free of teaching responsi- 
bility. Responsibility for Soils 101 is currently shared by 
Hassett and Vanden Heuvel. 

17 



18 

The introductory genetics course, Agronomy 110, was 
taught for many years by Professor Denton E. Alexander and 
later by Professor Earl B. Patterson. This course functioned as 
a service course for all agriculture biology departments, but 
the lead responsibility and most of the instruction was pro- 
vided by staff of the Department of Agronomy. Recently the 
Department of Animal Sciences has accepted a greater degree 
of responsibility for this genetics course. Frederic L. Kolb is 
currently the instructor for plant genetics portions of the 
course. The Department of Animal Sciences provides instruc- 
tors for animal genetics portions. Genetics has been cross- 
listed with Animal Science, Dairy Science, and Horticulture. 
Recently, the genetics course was renumbered Agronomy 220 
and credit increased from 3 to 4 hours. This change was 
recommended by the Cooperative States Research Service 
(CSRS) review committee in 1986. 

The courses discussed above were offered each semester 
and have had large enrollments. They were the only 100- 
series courses in the Department. These three courses, plus 
the senior seminar and senior thesis courses, were the only 
ones in the Department for which graduate students could 
not receive credit. Many courses were offered at the 300-level 
(open to both graduate and undergraduate students) and at 
the 400-level (open only to graduate students.) It was esti- 
mated that from one fourth to one third of the instructional 
units in the Department were derived from the 100-level 
courses. If such non-classroom courses as 499 (thesis re- 
search), 300 (special problems), and 493 (advanced studies) 
were excepted, the 100-level courses would account for 40 to 
45 percent of instructional units. 

During the period 1904-1988, a total of 726 MS degrees 
and 522 PhD degrees were earned in the University of Illinois 
Agronomy Department (see Table 1). The names of persons 
who earned MS degrees are listed in Appendix 6 and those 
who earned PhD degrees are listed in Appendix 7. About 36 
percent of these degrees were earned in various specialties 
within soil science and most of the remainder were earned in 
crop science. No specialty could be identified for 65 of the MS 
and one of the PhD degrees. During the first six decades, 
1904-1963, the number of MS degrees granted was double the 
number of PhD degrees granted, but equal numbers of MS 



19 



Table 1. Graduate degrees earned in the Agronomy Department, Univer- 
sity of Illinois, 1904-1988. 



Specialty 



1904- 1914- 1924- 1934- 1944- 1954- 1964- 1974- 1984- Total 
1913 1923 1933 1943 1953 1963 1973 1983 1988 number 











M.S. 


degrees 












Crop Breeding 


1 


1 


4 


12 


16 


26 


21 


26 


10 


117 




Crop Production 




5 


9 


20 


32 


28 


22 


26 


15 


157 




Crop Physiology 










5 


12 


12 


22 


12 


63 




Weed Science 










1 


9 


13 


9 


8 


40 




Crop Evolution 














4 


8 


1 


13 




Biotechnology 


1 


6 


13 


32 


54 


75 


72 


3 

94 


5 
51 


8 
398 




Subtotal - Crops 


54.8 


Soil Chemistry 
























& Fertility 


2 


8 


15 


13 


13 


34 


24 


15 


6 


130 




Pedology & 
























Mineralogy 




1 


4 


6 


9 


21 


20 


10 


8 


79 




Soil Physics 


1 


1 






5 


7 


2 


1 


1 


18 




Soil Microbiology 
























& Biochemistry 


1 


3 


2 


2 


5 


4 


5 


5 


1 


28 




Environmental 
























Management 


4 


13 


21 


21 


2 
34 


66 


51 


3 
34 


3 
19 


8 
263 




Subtotal • Soils 


36.3 


Specialty unknown 


16 
21 


14 
33 


9 
43 


4 
57 


19 
107 


1 
142 


1 
124 


1 
129 


70 


65 
726 


8.9 


Total 


100.0 










Ph.D 


. degrees 












Crop Breeding 


1 


2 


10 


4 


13 


14 


21 


15 


26 


106 




Crop Production 




2 


9 


4 


12 


10 


23 


6 


7 


73 




Crop Physiology 










3 


9 


31 


20 


13 


76 




Weed Science 










1 


7 


18 


22 


8 


56 




Crop Evolution 














7 


7 


5 


19 




Biotechnology 


1 


4 


19 


8 


29 


40 


100 


1 
71 


3 
62 


4 
334 




Subtotal - Crops 


64.0 


Soil Chemistry 
























& Fertility 


1 


6 


4 


10 


10 


26 


21 


12 


7 


97 




Pedology & 
























Mineralogy 






2 


6 


5 


8 


11 


6 


1 


39 




Soil Physics 












5 


15 


1 


1 


22 




Soil Microbiology 
























& Biochemistry 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


6 


6 


2 


6 


26 




Environmental 
























Management 


2 


7 


7 


17 


17 


45 


53 


22 


3 

18 


3 

187 




Subtotal - Soils 


35.8 


Specialty unknown 


1 
4 


11 


26 


25 


46 


85 


153 


92 


80 


1 
522 


.2 


Total 


100.0 



20 

and PhD degrees have been granted during the past 25 years, 
1964-1988. Foreign students were recipients of 115 MS and 
134 PhD degrees, 1904-1988. 

The development of graduate training in various special- 
ties within crop science and soil science is indicated in Table 
1. Crop breeding and soil chemistry and fertility were the 
earliest specialties to develop, followed soon by crop produc- 
tion and pedology. Soil mineralogy research started during 
the 1930s. Soil microbiology and soil physics were important 
but not extensive fields of study. Soil biochemistry research 
began during the 1950s. Crop physiology and weed science 
developed very rapidly beginning about 1950 and have be- 
come major specialties within crop science. Environmental 
management and crop evolution received more attention 
beginning in the 1960s and biotechnology research began 
during the 1970s. 

Recognizing the rapid advance in the science of statistics 
and the importance of statistics to all branches of science, the 
Department hired Walter C. Jacob in 1954 to provide statisti- 
cal competence and to initiate instruction in statistics within 
agronomy. Dr. Jacob instituted an introductory and an ad- 
vanced course, and organized a computing service to assist 
faculty and students in using the most modern methods of 
statistical analysis available on the University's computer 
system. Robert D. Seif joined the staff and assumed responsi- 
bility for the introductory course in 1958. Samuel G. Carmer 
joined the faculty in 1962 and began teaching an advanced 
course. Later, following the death of Dr. Jacob, William M. 
Walker joined the statistics faculty, bringing a special compe- 
tence in soils. 

The Department was the first among agronomy depart- 
ments to establish a strong program in basic plant physiol- 
ogy. John B. Hanson and Richard H. Hageman offered courses 
which were both popular and influential in guiding students 
in their educational plans and career decisions. A plant physi- 
ology curriculum was organized among several departments 
of the University, with a large measure of leadership from the 
Department of Agronomy. Physiology courses in the Depart- 
ment were integrated into courses offered in other depart- 
ments to provide a broad offering. 

Courses have been offered at the 300 and 400 levels in all 
major areas of soil and crop sciences. Some of these have 



21 

reflected the interests of individual faculty members. Some 
have continued despite staff changes; others have been re- 
vised, replaced, or dropped when a staff member left or when 
the timeliness of the material was thought to have changed. 
The content of courses is a constant concern. Periodic reviews 
insure that course content will reflect current "state of the 
art." 

Enrollment in soils courses lagged in the 1970s. The rea- 
sons for the apparent decline in interest were not under- 
stood, but it was thought to be due in part to limited visibil- 
ity. Soils courses had been listed under the "Agron" label in 
the catalog and time tables. Nowhere was a course listed as 
"Soils." Beginning in 1980 all soils courses were redesignated 
from "Agron xxx" to "Soils xxx". 

Seminars have been highly dynamic. In the early days of 
the era there was a single departmental seminar. In the 1950s 
there were soils and crops seminars. By about 1963 the crops 
seminar had been split into plant breeding and production 
seminars. An ecology seminar was instituted in 1968, but was 
dropped after about three years. An international agronomy 
seminar was started in 1976 and dropped in 1982. In 1975 
the production seminar was dropped and a physiology semi- 
nar was begun. 

For more than 20 years seminars have been coordinated by 
teams of three faculty members serving three-year terms for 
each seminar. Credit toward graduation for seminars has 
been variable. At times 1/4 unit has been given; at other 
times there has been no credit, although participation of 
graduate students was required. 

In addition to the seminars that are recognized in the 
curriculum, a number of informal seminars have been organ- 
ized by professors for their own students or by faculty and 
students who have a particular common interest. A seminar 
in genetic engineering was recently established as a result of 
funding from the Standard Oil Company (Ohio) for a Center 
of Excellence in Crop Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engi- 
neering. 

Prior to about 1970 all undergraduate students in agron- 
omy were in the general agriculture curriculum. At about that 
time, specializations were offered in crops and in soils, in 
addition to general agronomy. In 1975 crop protection was 
offered for the first time as an interdepartmental option. 



22 

Other options available to agronomy students are the agricul- 
tural science and agricultural industries curricula. These op- 
tions are all within the agriculture major. In 1981 a new soil 
science curriculum was approved. This curriculum has some- 
what higher requirements in mathematics and chemistry 
than the soils option. 

Many faculty members have been involved in the off- 
campus teaching program of the Division of Continuing 
Education and Public Service. It became evident that there 
was a need for students to be able to complete all of the 
requirements for a master's degree in agronomy through off- 
campus courses. In 1985 a new extramural degree program 
was approved. Courses are offered on a rotational basis at 
several locations in the state, and advisory counseling is 
offered to assist students in planning their study toward a 
degree. Within two years the program was being offered at 
four locations in the state. Facilities of community colleges 
and county extension offices were used. Through 1988, 30 
students had enrolled in this program. Three completed the 
requirements for their master of science degrees in 1988. 

In 1966 Department Head Marlowe D. Thorne instituted a 
policy of designating faculty "coordinators" of major activi- 
ties within the Department. Carl N. Hittle was the first teach- 
ing coordinator. After Hittle took an overseas assignment, 
Darrell A. Miller became teaching coordinator in 1968; he has 
continued as teaching coordinator since then. 

The teaching faculty has been in the forefront of innova- 
tions in teaching techniques. Auto-tutorial instruction was 
begun about 1968. A PLATO terminal was located in Turner 
Hall and is used for instruction in statistics, genetics, and soil 
physics. Closed circuit TV has been used as an instructional 
aid since the late 1960s. Course evaluation was undertaken 
beginning in 1962 when Professor Burger developed a multi- 
page questionnaire to be completed by students at the end of 
the semester. Later when the University adopted the Instruc- 
tor and Course Evaluation System (ICES) forms, the Depart- 
ment's teaching committee developed an ICES model appro- 
priate for agronomy. 

Our teaching faculty and students have brought great credit 
and distinction to the Department in competitions. Major 
awards that have been won include: American Society of 



23 

Agronomy (ASA) Agronomic Education: Burger, Miller; Na- 
tional Association of Colleges and Teachers of Agriculture 
(NACTA) Advisor: Burger; NACTA Ensminger Teaching 
Award: Burger; NACTA Fellow: Burger, Banwart, Miller, Seif; 
UIUC Campus Excellence in Teaching: Miller, and Teaching 
Assistants Lee E. Schweitzer and Jeannette Korczak; Off-cam- 
pus Excellence in Teaching: Miller, McGlamery; Outstanding 
Teacher, College of Agriculture: Slife, Burger, Hassett, Miller, 
McGlamery; College Senior Award for Excellence in Teach- 
ing: Burger; Gardner Outstanding Advisor: Miller; and Spitler 
Teaching: Miller. 

The Field and Furrow Club, advised by Drs. Burger, 
Banwart, Peck, and others, has dominated national competi- 
tions, winning the Best Agronomy Club award 18 times in 
the last 32 years, 11 times in the last 12 years! Our students 
have won many of the individual competitions sponsored by 
the Student Activities Section — American Society of Agron- 
omy (S AS- AS A). Several have served as president of the SAS- 
ASA and in other offices. New faculty members Robert H. 
Teyker and Richard M. Vanden Heuvel have recently joined 
the Field and Furrow advisory group. 



3 

Extension 



The Department of Agronomy has had strong extension 
programs in crops and soils for many years. Jay C. Hackleman 
was an early leader in crops extension and helped promote 
the expansion of soybean production in Illinois. Clyde M. 
Linsley gave special attention to soil fertility. Ernest D. 
Walker, Alfred Tate, and W. Frank Purnell helped organize 
the soil conservation districts in Illinois during the 1930s and 
1940s and concentrated on soil and water management. The 
soil testing laboratory under Alfred U. Thor was an important 
extension resource for teaching farmers good soil manage- 
ment. 

After about 1950, extension programs changed somewhat 
in approach and expanded significantly. Early extension work 
was often done by explaining directly to farmers how to 
utilize improved crop and soil management practices. Cur- 
rent emphasis is on more intensive education of farmers and 
agribusinessmen concerning how and why various manage- 
ment practices are better in different situations. The Depart- 
ment faculty held training sessions for county extension 
staffs, some of whom were designated specialized advisers in 
agronomy. As the professional training of workers in agricul- 
tural industries improved, there was greater cooperation be- 
tween extension and the private sector in counseling farmers. 

Innovation of useful programs was emphasized and if oth- 
ers wanted to join in leadership, they were encouraged to do 

24 



25 



so, thereby enabling extension personnel to move on to 
other programs. For example, soil testing was started by 
extension, but in Illinois it has for many years been done by 
various public and private laboratories, which are monitored 
by a control laboratory in the Department. 

Likewise, extension was involved in the establishment of a 
system of seed certification. Hackleman was instrumental in 
the formation of the Illinois Crop Improvement Association 
and Illinois Foundation Seeds, Inc. These organizations now 
operate independently in performing seed certification and 
foundation functions by agreement with the Director of the 
Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, who has statutory 
responsibility for seed certification. Each organization has an 
advisory committee drawn from the Department of Agron- 
omy and other departments. 

Certification of varieties through crop improvement asso- 
ciations has been a major quality control mechanism, dating 
back to the 1920s. As the Plant Variety Protection Act of 1970 
was being proposed and developed, there was much concern 
that variety protection under the Act might have detrimental 
effects on the system of seed certification. To lessen such an 
impact, a provision was included that authorized protection 
with the stipulation that seed of a protected variety could be 



140 




45 



40 



1950 



1960 1970 

Year 



1980 



1990 



w 35 
W 

.22 

>■ 30 

c 

0) 

>25 
</> 

<2 

C 20 



15 



• »♦ • 




1950 



1960 1970 

Year 



1980 



1990 



Fig. 9 The effectiveness of research and of extension in communicating 
the results of crops and soils research is illustrated by these USDA data 
showing the increase in Illinois corn and soybean yields during the last 
four decades. Year to year variations largely reflect weather conditions; 
for example, severe drought drastically reduced crop yields in 1983 and 
1988. The low corn yields in 1970 were due to southern corn leaf blight. 



26 




Fig. 10. University President David Dodds Henry and Dean Louis B. How- 
ard were among those participating in the first Agronomy Day in 1957. 



sold only as a class of certified seed. Thus, allegations of 
infringement could be dealt with by seed law enforcement 
officials under Title V of the Federal Seed Act. Otherwise, the 
owner of a protected variety could only bring action against 
the alleged infringer in the civil courts. This provision has 
been widely used, especially with regard to varieties originat- 
ing in the public sector. 

A variety may also be protected without stipulating sale 
only as a class of certified seed. Companies have often chosen 
this method of protection and are not required to submit 
their varieties for certification by crop improvement associa- 
tions. 

Extension agronomists have been involved in several pro- 
found changes in soil and crop management during recent 
decades. Crop yields continue to increase in response to 
multiple factors, such as better crop varieties, increased soil 
fertilization — especially with nitrogen on corn — , increased 
plant populations, and better control of weeds and other 
pests. The use of soluble phosphorus fertilizers has increased 
greatly. Land use has become more intensive, with less use of 
forage crops and distinctly more soybeans. Weed control 



27 




Fig. 11. Plant Clinic on St. Mary's Road at the north end of the Agronomy/ 
Plant Pathology South Farm, provides diagnostic services related to dis- 
ease, insect, and weed problems of crops. 



methods have changed, most strikingly through adoption of 
herbicides. Tillage methods have changed markedly, with 
plowing becoming less common. Reduced-, minimum-, and 
zero-tillage are being used more widely. Greater attention is 
being given to possible environmental effects of agronomic 
practices concerning fertilizers, herbicides, mercury seed treat- 
ment, etc. 

Education programs were intensified and broadened by the 
introduction of new publications and by offering new train- 
ing schools. Some of the new Agronomy publication series 
and the year of initiation were: Agronomy Facts, 1953; Agron- 
omy News, 1956; and Agronomy Handbook, 1968. Annual 
conferences and training schools which were inaugurated for 
specialized groups include: Illinois Agricultural Pesticides 
Conference, formerly Custom Spray School, 1948; Regional 
Seed Clinics, 1953; Regional Soil Clinics, 1953; Regional Fer- 
tilizer Clinics, 1958; Illinois Crop Protection Workshop, 1974; 
Pest Scout Training School, 1977. Agronomy Day at the 
South Farm began as an annual event in 1957. 

An interdepartmental plant clinic (Fig. 11) was established 
in a newly-constructed building at the South Farm in 1976. 
The clinic operates during the summer as a facility where 
extension advisers or individuals may bring unhealthy plants 
for diagnosis of the cause of the problem. Work on disease 



28 

and weed identification and herbicide injury is done at the 
clinic. Insect problems are referred to a laboratory in the State 
Natural History Survey. 

Since 1951, the Agronomy Extension staff has increased in 
number and become more specialized. An extension coordi- 
nator position was established in 1966, when Samuel R. 
Aldrich was appointed for two years. He was followed by 
Walter O. Scott, who served until 1977. Robert G. Hoeft has 
been extension coordinator since 1977. Disciplinary area 
leaders since 1951 have included: 

Crop production — Walter O. Scott, Emerson D. Nafziger 

Forage crops — William D. Pardee, Don W. Graffis 

Soybeans — Gary E. Pepper 

Weed control — Earl C. Spurrier, Ralph L. Gantz, Ellery L. 
Knake, Marshal D. McGlamery 

Soil fertility — Samuel R. Aldrich, Robert G. Hoeft, Theo- 
dore R. Peck, L. Fred Welch 

Soil use and management — Lloyd J. McKenzie, Edward C. 
A. Runge, William R. Oschwald, Thomas J. Bicki 

Irrigation — Marlowe D. Thorne, F. William Simmons 

National awards received by extension staff members in- 
clude: Agronomic Education: Aldrich, Scott; Extension Edu- 
cation: Knake, Hoeft; CIBA-Geigy: Knake, Hoeft, Nafziger; 
Crops & Soils Magazine: Hoeft. 



4 



Corn Breeding/Genetics 



Corn breeding/genetics has been a primary interest of Uni- 
versity of Illinois scientists since even before the establish- 
ment of the Department of Agronomy. The 19th century 
work of McCluer and Hunt and their successors has already 
been mentioned. Edward M. East did his earliest work leading 
to the hybrid corn industry while a student in the Depart- 
ment at the beginning of the 20th century. 

Corn breeding in the Department during the World War II 
years and earlier had been the responsibility of half-time 
graduate students or of full-time people usually with Master's 
degrees and titles such as "Assistant", "Associate", or "First 
Assistant." In 1944, Oren E. Bolin, who had been the corn 
breeder for several years, was promoted to assistant professor 
of plant genetics and assistant chief, plant genetics. He was in 
charge of corn performance tests and conducted research to 
develop inbred lines for hybrid production. He gave a series 
of talks on radio station WILL in 1940 and later years on the 
prospect for hybrid corn. In a talk at Farm and Home Week in 
1940, he said that in 1939 approximately 70 percent of 
Illinois corn production was in hybrids. 

Bolin resigned to join a commercial corn breeding program 
in 1945. He was succeeded in November of that year by 
Robert W. Jugenheimer, who was appointed associate profes- 
sor of plant genetics and took over leadership of the corn 

29 



30 

breeding program. He continued research on the develop- 
ment of improved hybrids, expanding the program to in- 
clude evaluation for improved characteristics, disease and 
insect resistance, and special chemical composition. 

Jugenheimer continued as the coordinator of the corn 
program, but beginning in 1950, when he spent six months 
as a special advisor on maize breeding and seed production in 
Turkey, he was increasingly involved in international agricul- 
ture. He continued his active Departmental programs for 
several years. As the need for improved statistical treatment 
of data became apparent in the corn breeding/genetics and 
other areas of the Department, in 1953 he was given adminis- 
trative responsiblity for the Department Calculating Room. 
This was the forerunner of the biometry group that was 
established with the arrival of Walter C. Jacob in 1954. By 
1959 Jugenheimer's involvement in international agriculture 
activities had become his major interest. He was appointed 
assistant dean and assistant coordinator of international pro- 
grams in 1959 and ceased to be active in the Department's 
corn program. 

After Jugenheimer moved into full-time international agri- 
culture work, Earl R. Leng assumed responsibility for the 
experimental testing program and for the long-term oil and 
protein selection. During periods when Leng was on assign- 
ments away from the campus, the oil and protein selection 
project was handled by D. Eugene Alexander. John W. Dud- 
ley took over the long-term selection project after Leng took 
international agriculture assignments in the late 1960s. Leng 
and Alexander shared responsibility for breeding and devel- 
opmental research on special chemical composition. 

An unusual project concerns long-term selection in corn 
for oil and protein. Dating back to 1896, results of the first 70 
generations were summarized in a publication of the Crop 
Science Society of America. The 89th generation was pro- 
duced in 1988. Even after so many generations, genetic vari- 
ability still exists in the populations and selection progress is 
still being made. Results of this project have provided the 
basis for research demonstrating the potential for progress 
from long-term chemical selection. 

This long-term selection project also provided the contrast- 
ing material used in demonstrating the usefulness of nuclear 



31 



magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) for oil analysis. 
Breeding for improved oil in corn was limited by existing 
analytical techniques, which were slow, tedious, and destruc- 
tive. Professor Alexander commented on this limitation at an 
industry meeting in 1960. Following the meeting, Stanley A. 
Watson of the Corn Products Company, an alumnus (AM41, 
PhD49) and later a member of the Department Advisory 
Committee, suggested that NMR might offer a solution. As a 
consequence of the suggestion, Dr. Alexander used samples 
from Illinois Low Oil (-1%), Illinois High Oil (-15%), and 
two samples of intermediate oil content for a feasibility ex- 
periment using an NMR instrument of the Corn Products Co. 
A straight-line relationship between oil content and the NMR 
signal was observed. Methods for analysis of single whole 
seeds and bulk samples were developed concurrently. Major 
contributions to development of the NMR procedure were 
made by technician Ralph Rogers, graduate student Luis 




Fig. 12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance instrumentation revolutionized oil 
analysis in corn, soybean, and other seeds. 



32 

Silvela, and oil chemist Floyd I. Collins, USDA/ARS, along 
with Professor Alexander. Department members were influ- 
ential in persuading the Varian Company to develop and 
market a solid-state circuit NMR instrument. 

Although the "invention" of wide-line NMR methods for 
non-destructive analysis of living seeds was significant, the 
more important outcome was the application of the method 
in practical plant breeding. Commercial production of higher- 
oil hybrids has existed since at least 1977, though it is still 
limited in scale. New inbreds are stimulating interest among 
commercial producers of hybrids, particularly for use as food 
corns. Higher-oil programs exist in Yugoslavia, Russia, and 
China using Illinois sources of high oil material. Illinois is the 
sole source of high oil breeding stocks. 

At about the same time as NMR was coming into use, 
instruments for oil and protein analysis by infra-red spectros- 
copy became available. Although the instruments originated 
elsewhere, much of the work of adapting and calibrating 
them for seed analaysis was done in the Department. Infra- 
red analysis has become the method of choice in selection for 
protein. 

One of those fortuitous scientific developments that are 
the delight of the popular press occurred in the corn genetics 
program of Prof. John R. Laughnan, of the Departments of 
Botany and Agronomy. He observed a line in which the 
kernels were much sweeter than normal. This led to the 
development of the Illini Super Sweet variety of sweet corn, 
which was marketed commercially by Illinois Foundation 
Seeds, Inc. 

The Department has been home since 1953 to the Maize 
Genetic Cooperation Stock Center, a unique repository of 
genetic stocks which serves maize geneticists world-wide. The 
nucleus of the collection was assembled and maintained at 
Cornell University by R. A. I^merson. Following the death of 
Professor Emerson, the collection was in danger of being lost; 
it was then transferred to the University of Illinois through 
the leadership of Marcus M. Rhoades, of the Departments of 
Botany and Agronomy. Responsibility for the center was 
assigned to the Department of Agronomy. For about 25 years 
the Center was supported by the National Science Founda- 
tion at a half-time position level. After NSF discontinued 
support, USDA/ARS provided funding. 



33 

Earl B. Patterson served as director of the Maize Center 
from 1953 until 1966. He was succeeded by Lambert. Gilbert 
H. Fletcher became director in 1981. Patterson resumed the 
directorship in 1986. 

The size of the collection has increased steadily through 
stocks submitted by geneticists. In recent years, due in large 
part to heightened interest in biotechnology, there has been 
a steady increase in stock distribution and a considerably 
expanded and diversified clientele. 

In 1958 Laughnan arranged an informal conference of 
maize geneticists from Illinois and surrounding states. The 
initial meeting met with such enthusiastic response that 
another conference was held the following year, to which 
maize geneticsts from throughout the nation were invited. 
Thus began an unbroken series of annual national confer- 
ences on maize genetics under University of Illinois sponsor- 
ship. Held at Allerton House near Monticello, IL, these con- 
ferences came to be known as the Allerton Maize Genetic 
Conferences. From 1959 through 1984, the conferences were 
arranged and presided over by Earl B. Patterson. By 1984 
attendance had outgrown the facilities of Allerton House, so 
the meeting was held that year at the Ramada Inn in Cham- 
paign. Since 1985, the conferences have been held in Wis- 
consin. 

The Maize Genetic Conferences have continued the tradi- 
tion of open and informal exchange of information by maize 
geneticists. They have served a unique unifying function by 
providing a forum for sharing, interpreting, and integrating 
information and viewpoints from the many specialized areas 
of maize genetics research. By bringing together scientists 
from various disciplines, the conferences have led to numer- 
ous continuing fruitful collaborative efforts. 

By mid-twentieth century the hybrid corn era was well into 
its second decade. Breeding and development of hybrid varie- 
ties were done mostly in the private sector. A few compa- 
nies — Pioneer, DeKalb, Funk — had major shares of the mar- 
ket, but dozens of companies had successful breeding pro- 
grams. In the 1950s and 1960s research in the corn breeding/ 
genetics group of the Department moved more and more in 
the direction of basic genetics and improvement in research 
techniques. Special efforts were made to train graduate stu- 
dents for corn breeding positions in the companies. Several 



34 

former students now occupy important positions in commer- 
cial firms. 

Some of the companies had highly trained plant breeders, 
but many commercial breeders had limited training and had 
difficulty keeping abreast of advancing technology. Thus, in 
1965 began the annual "Corn Breeders School", a one- to 
two-day intensive seminar designed to help industry people 
keep up to date in corn breeding. Management of the school, 
in which all of the corn breeding staff were highly involved, 
traditionally revolved among the faculty in corn breeding. 
Each year's program has drawn on Departmental faculty as 
well as leading scientists from outside the University, fre- 
quently including some from the private sector. For many 
years the Corn Breeders School was limited to Illinois breed- 
ers, but in about 1984 that restriction was dropped. The 
number of participants has increased from about 50 in the 
early days to more than 200 in 1988. Each participant re- 
ceives a book containing the lectures which are presented. 
Additional copies are offered for sale. In the mid-eighties 
about 100 copies per year were being sold to non-partici- 
pants. 

The Department has long conducted tests of commercial 
hybrids in a program supported entirely by testing fees. These 
tests have been conducted at several locations throughout 
the state. Entry of hybrids into this test is voluntary but most 
companies have participated. These tests were the responsi- 
bility of the Corn Breeding group from 1955 to 1968. Earl R. 
Leng was in charge from 1955 to 1964, after which Robert J. 
Lambert was in charge until 1968, when the program was 
assigned to Agronomy extension personnel. 

About the time of the start of the Corn Breeders School the 
concept of the Illinois Maize Genetics Laboratory (IMGL) was 
conceived. The purpose was to increase visibility of the group 
working in corn breeding and genetics and to provide a 
vehicle for the acceptance of gifts and grants. Under the 
IMGL title, a description of projects and brief summary of 
current results have been published every few years. In 1986, 
alumnus and long-time leader in the seed corn industry H. 
Clifford Heaton (BS49) made provision for a major deferred 
gift to support a professorial chair in maize genetics. 

Southern Corn Leaf Blight posed a major threat to corn 
production in 1970. Actually, the problem was solved almost 



35 

before the alarm was sounded. Arthur L. Hooker, of the 
Departments of Plant Pathology and Agronomy, recognized 
that susceptibility was associated with "T" cytoplasm, which 
was almost universally used as the source of cytoplasmic 
male sterility. The problem was controlled by going back to 
mechanical detasseling. For 1971, however, the supply of 
seed of normal cytoplasm was very limited. Blends were used, 
thus reducing losses due to the blight. 

For many years the objectives of the corn breeding/genet- 
ics group have emphasized the development of information 
and materials that could be used by breeders in the private 
sector. Initiation and success of the Corn Breeders School 
illustrate this philosophy. The array of projects in the group 
has thus reflected the changing times. A genetic male sterility 
system based on materials in the Genetic Stock Center was 
developed by Patterson and was patented by the University. 
The recurrent problem of plant diseases has been addressed 
with the development of a basis for simultaneous improve- 
ment of yield and disease resistance. Quantitative methods of 
identifying sources of useful genes that are not present in an 
elite hybrid have been developed, as well as methods of 
incorporating useful genes into lines or populations. Work 
has continued in the Department on the opaque-2 gene and 
lines with this gene have been released to corn seed compa- 
nies. 

As corn yields increased, with reported yields sometimes 
exceeding 300 bushels per acre, there arose the question of 
whether even higher yields might be obtained if breeders 
made their selections in fields offering the best possible envi- 
ronmental conditions. This question led Lambert in 1976 to 
establish "maximum yield" plots, alternating with similar 
plots of Richard L. Cooper of the USDA soybean breeders 
group, to investigate whether environment is an efficient 
way to select parent materials. This project led to increasing 
cooperation of breeders and physiologists. The Department 
has pioneered in the use of physiological traits in corn breed- 
ing. As interest in biotechnology has expanded, new tech- 
niques for use of tissue and cell cultures and for the transfer 
of genes have brought closer interactions of breeder/geneti- 
cists with colleagues in other disciplines. 

The corn group has encouraged close association with 
colleagues in other institutions, including those abroad. 



36 

Many foreign students and visitors have worked in the group 
for various periods of time. These experiences have led to 
continued association and collaboration, especially with col- 
leagues in Spain and Yugoslavia. In 1975 the International 
Maize Genetics Conference was organized and hosted by the 
Illinois corn group. Proceedings of this conference were pub- 
lished and have become a major reference. 

In 1973 the group was joined by George F. Sprague, inter- 
nationally renowned corn geneticist, following his retire- 
ment from USDA/ARS. Already a member of the National 
Academy of Sciences when he came to Illinois, Dr. Sprague 
was subsequently the recipient of the first Wolf prize in 
agriculture awarded by the Government of Israel. He has 
continued an active research program, serving as counselor 
and inspiration for the faculty and students. 



5 

Soybean Breeding/Genetics 



Research on soybeans began in the College of Agriculture 
in the 1890s. The first research report was published in 1896. 
Soybeans have been a part of the cropping pattern at the 
Agronomy/Plant Pathology South Farm since 1903. 

Early work dealt with production practices and selection, 
but active soybean breeding can be said to have begun when 
Clyde M. Woodworth joined the faculty in 1920. As has been 
mentioned earlier, Woodworth developed several varieties 
and provided the cross that led to the first variety released 
under the cooperative USDA/Universities program. Dr. Wood- 
worth's variety 'Chief, from a cross of 'Illini' x 'Manchu A', 
was released in 1940, the first variety from a directed cross in 
Illinois and one of the first in the Midwest. 

A relationship destined to have a major impact on Illinois 
agriculture and on the Department of Agronomy began in 
1936 with the establishment of the U. S. Regional Soybean 
Industrial Products Laboratory (USRSL) as a cooperative ven- 
ture of the USDA and the College of Agriculture. Production 
research, initially limited to variety development, was based 
in the Department of Agronomy. Jackson L. Cartter was the 
first agronomist in the USRSL, being joined soon by Leonard 
F. Williams. Studies also were initiated very early on produc- 
tion practices, including row spacing, date of planting, in- 
oculation, seed treatment, and rotation. Utilization research 

37 



38 




Fig. 13. Clyde M. Woodworth, who 
headed the plant breeding pro- 
gram for many years, published 
the first map of soybean chromo- 
somes and made the crosses 
which led to the first improved 
soybean varieties in the regional 
program of the State Agricultural 
Experiment Stations and the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture. 



was also a part of the labora- 
tory mission. The utilization 
work was transferred to the 
USDA Northern Regional Re- 
search Center in Peoria in 
1942. 

Cooperative variety devel- 
opment in the regional pro- 
gram began with lines derived 
from crosses which had been 
made in the Department by 
Professor Woodworth. The 
first improved soybean variety 
from the cooperative program, 
'Lincoln', developed by Wil- 
liams from a cross made earlier 
by Woodworth, was released 
in 1943. It was well-accepted 
and by 1948 occupied nearly 
70 percent of the soybean acre- 
age in Illinois. 

The USDA laboratory had 
regional responsibility, with 
plant breeders located at Pur- 
due and Iowa State Universi- 
ties and later in several other 
states. Collaborators in other 
soybean producing states par- 



ticipated actively in biennial 
work-planning conferences and in evaluation of experimen- 
tal material. 

Recommendations on release of varieties were made at the 
conferences. These recommendations were based on results 
from the Uniform Tests, which have been central to genetic 
improvement of soybeans in the United States. These tests 
were coordinated by the USRSL in the Department of Agron- 
omy and were published here from 1939 through 1973. The 
Uniform Tests and publication of results continues elsewhere, 
although the USRSL and the USDA-sponsored meetings no 
longer exist. The biennial conferences and the Uniform Tests 
were pioneer examples of regional cooperation. 



39 

The work-planning conferences were held on campus for 
many years. Beginning in 1962 they were held at Allerton 
Park. Eventually, the number of participants became too 
large and the program diversity too great to be accommo- 
dated at Allerton Park. The conferences were then held in St. 
Louis or Memphis. 

The work-planning conferences were discontinued, how- 
ever, after the 1973 "2nd National Soybean Research Confer- 
ence/' following a vote by those present to end the meetings. 
Later the soybean breeders agreed to meet annually, and have 
continued to do so. The breeders' meetings are no longer 
sponsored by USDA, and there have been changes in agenda 
and reporting procedures. 

Soybeans were introduced into this country even before 
the Revolutionary War (see section on Crop Evolution for 
discussion of the contributions of Department faculty to 
knowledge of the history of soybean introduction into Amer- 
ica and Illinois.) The USDA sent plant explorers to China in 
the 1920s and 1930s to collect soybean germplasm. But most 
of these soybeans were tested briefly and discarded. In 1949 
the USDA established its soybean germplasm collection in 
the USRSL, with lines of southern adaptation at Stoneville, 
MS. The collection grew slowly for many years, but recently 
has increased significantly through donations from collec- 
tions abroad. Richard L. Bernard was the curator from 1954 
until his retirement at the end of 1988. Randall L. Nelson 
succeeded Bernard as curator. Following his retirement from 
USDA, Bernard accepted a half-time appointment in the 
Department to develop new types of soybeans for expanded 
uses. 

The Urbana-based collection now includes about 8,000 
entries and is increasing rapidly as a result of aggressive 
action to obtain soybeans from foreign collections. Of the 
Urbana collection, about 20 percent came from China, 15 
percent from Japan, 28 percent from Korea, and 25 percent 
from USSR. A recent publication describing soybean collec- 
tions world-wide reported a total of more than 111,000 en- 
tries in the various collections. The USDA collection at Illi- 
nois and Stoneville, MS, comprises about 10 percent of the 
total. A line obtained in exchange from the USSR collection 
has recently been found to have resistance to all known races 



40 

^^^^^^ of the soybean cyst nematode. 

One from Japan provides the 

first clearcut resistance to Pho- 

M mopsis seed rot and a recent 

introduction from Korea is re- 
ft sistant to all races of soybean 

mosaic virus. 

Studies of basic soybean 

genetics proceeded steadily in 

Fig. 14. The first chromosome map the Department and elsewhere 

of soybeans, published by C. M. as genetic tools were sough t to 

Woodworth in 1932. (From . ^ • j. >*. x. 

n.Agr.Exp.sta.Bui.384) improve agronomic traits such 

as standability and shattering 
resistance, disease resistance, 
and chemical and nutritional attributes. As early as the 1930s, 
Woodworth had published the first map of soybean chromo- 
somes. 

As the number of soybean geneticists and breeders and the 
amount of information increased, a Soybean Genetics Com- 
mittee was formed in 1955 to monitor soybean genetic re- 
search and to standardize assignment of gene symbols. Ber- 
nard was chairman of the committee from its inception until 
1976, when Henry H. Hadley, who had been a member of the 
committee since 1958, became chairman for 1976 - 1979. 
Since 1979, chairmen have come from other institutions. In 
addition to Bernard and Hadley, Department members on 
the Soybean Genetics Committee have included Theodore 
Hymowitz, Randall L. Nelson (USDA/ARS), and Christine 
Newell. 

An outgrowth of the Soybean Genetics Committee was the 
Soybean Germplasm Committee. An informal germplasm 
committee had existed for many years, but in 1979 it became 
somewhat more formalized at the behest of the Soybean 
Genetics Committee. Professor Nelson was the first chair- 
man, serving until 1985. Professor Bernard was an "ex-offi- 
cio" member by virtue of his responsibility as curator of the 
soybean germplasm collection. 

Soybean breeders recognized the potential of disease con- 
trol by developing resistant varieties. Breeding for disease 
resistance has been an important objective for many years. 
When phytophthora rot threatened soybean production in 



41 

the 1950s, single gene resistance was found by Bernard and 
back-crossed into established varieties by Bernard in associa- 
tion with USDA plant pathologist D. W. Chamberlain. It was 
an ideal system for back-crossing. A seedling test was devised, 
so that resistant plants could be identified, maintained, and 
used at flowering for another back-cross. Such resistant 
counterpart varieties were often identified with a number 
following the variety name, e.g., 'Clark 63'. 

Breeding for seed quality and high yield for southern Illi- 
nois has been a continuing objective of Bernard. In that part 
of the state there is more soybean acreage than corn. Poor 
seed quality is a serious problem. First 'Wayne' and then 
'Williams' varieties were released. Both were well accepted in 
southern Illinois. Work on resistance to the soybean cyst 
nematode began well before the disease was reported in 
Illinois, so that resistant varieties were available when the 
need arose. 

In addition to variety releases, the soybean breeding pro- 
gram developed improved germplasm which has been re- 
leased to other plant breeders for incorporation into their 
experimental material. Examples include lines with resis- 
tance to Mexican bean beetle, soybean cyst nematode, and 
downy mildew, plus isoline pairs contrasting for such traits as 
nodulation, iron inefficiency, phosphorus tolerance, stem 
type, time of maturity, leaf form, pubescence type, and green 
seed coat. 

Several sources of genes for resistance to soybean mosaic 
virus and brown stem rot have been found. In addition, 
several sources are known for resistance to soybean rust, a 
disease not yet known in the United States. However, devel- 
opment of improved resistant germplasm for rust is under- 
way in cooperation with the USDA Foreign Disease Research 
Unit at Frederick, MD. 

The first male sterile gene with complete female fertility 
was discovered by Bernard. The potential for use of male 
sterility has been studied extensively by Hadley and his stu- 
dents. 

Hadley studied proteins associated with chlorophyll and 
genetic factors influencing the principal protein groups, 
which in ultracentrifuge separations are identified as "7s" 
and "lis". He and his students studied heritability of oil, 



42 

fatty acids, proteins and sugars in individual seeds, as com- 
pared with individual plants. Heritabilities on individual 
seeds were too low to be of practical use to plant breeders. A 
seed's phenotype was found to be determined by the geno- 
type of the female parent, rather than by the seed's own 
genotype. 

Cytogenetic studies initiated by Hadley involving chromo- 
some counts of some species, cytological behavior of two 
asynaptic lines, and aneuploidy in Glycine max, were very 
important in stimulating expanded research in this area. 
Hadley made and studied the first interspecific hybrids in the 
genus Glycine, work which provided a basis for further studies 
as techniques of genetic engineering became available. 

Richard L. Cooper joined the USDA staff in 1967, succeed- 
ing Cartter as laboratory director and establishing a research 
program that was directed at high yield environments. Coo- 
per was particularly interested in short-statured varieties 
which would be suitable for more narrow rows and higher 
populations under optimum conditions. He established 
"maximum yield'' plots at the South Farm, alternating with 
similar plots of Robert J. Lambert of the corn group. Varieties 
such as 'Pixie', which are short-statured and very resistant to 
lodging in highly productive environments, were developed 
in Cooper's program. Cooper transferred in 1977 to Wooster, 
OH, where he continues a successful breeding program with 
this distinctive plant type. 

Theodore Hymowitz joined the faculty in 1967 in a posi- 
tion initially funded by the National Soybean Processors 
Association. He was the first full-time University of Illinois at 
Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) state-employed faculty member 
whose research assignment was soybean genetics. Wood- 
worth and Hadley each had major soybean responsibility, 
but also worked on several other crops. Hymowitz's first 
assignment was to conduct trials in Pantnagar, India, for the 
UIUC University Development Project there. An experimen- 
tal plan, designed on campus in association with William M. 
Walker, was used to obtain the maximum information with 
the minimum number of plots. The success of that year's 
trials gave a boost to the India program and was a forerunner 
of the International Soybean Program (INTSOY). 

Upon his return to the campus, Hymowitz noted that 



43 

while the germplasm collection had proved very valuable in 
breeding for improved agronomic traits and disease resis- 
tance, it was largely untested as a source for improvement in 
chemical traits other than oil, protein, fatty acids, and amino 
acids. He undertook such studies, beginning with the Kunitz 
trypsin inhibitor. Hadley and a student, Laxman Singh, had 
identified genetic differences between two Kunitz trypsin 
inhibitors and had found that for this trait, the seed's own 
genotype determined its phenotype. In commercial process- 
ing, soybeans are heated to remove this anti-nutritional fac- 
tor. Hymowitz found a genotype that lacked the Kunitz tryp- 
sin inhibitor. Subsequently, genotypes were found that lacked 
urease, lectin, B-amylase, and lipoxygenase- 1. All of these so- 
called "null" genotypes reproduced normally. In cooperation 
with Bernard, the null traits were crossed into varieties of 
good agronomic background. No differences in yield or other 
agronomic traits were found. Currently these lines are being 
evaluated by animal scientists for their nutritional value. 

The collection of perennial relatives of soybeans was greatly 
expanded with explorations in the South Pacific and Asia by 
Hymowitz, Bernard, and Christine Newell. Twelve species are 
now known in the subgenus Glycine, in addition to the two in 
subgenus Soja. Some of these explorations were supported by 
the Illinois Soybean Program Operating Board (ISPOB). 

The perennial species have important traits such as disease 
resistance and salt tolerance that are not available in Glycine 
max. Conventional crosses of perennial Glycine species and G. 
max have been unsuccessful. This has led to use of biotech- 
nology to recover hybrid embryos. This work is discussed 
further in the section on Biotechnology. 

Cecil D. Nickell, a successful soybean breeder at Kansas 
State University, came to the Department in 1978 in a new 
position funded initially by the Illinois Soybean Program 
Operating Board (ISPOB). His program has aimed at varieties 
with improved disease resistance to brown stem rot, phyto- 
phthora rot, and soybean cyst nematode. Brown stem rot is a 
disease which has not been controlled by techniques that 
were successful against other diseases. Using a new method 
developed in cooperation with Lynn Gray (USDA and De- 
partment of Plant Pathology), Nickell has been able to screen 
breeding lines for BSR resistance much more rapidly and 



44 

reliably, and with the new method has identified specific 
genes controlling this resistance. 

Randall L. Nelson has found that the length of pod-fill 
period is one of the few traits having a demonstrated effect 
on yield. He has evaluated about 5,000 lines from the 
germplasm collection and made the data available to other 
scientists through the USDA national germplasm computer 
network (GRIN). This has made the soybean data base the 
largest and most comprehensive in the GRIN system. 

Unlike corn hybrid varieties, soybean varieties were nearly 
all developed in the public sector in the cooperative program 
of the USDA and the State Agricultural Experiment Stations 
prior to 1970. This situation changed dramatically following 
enactment of the Plant Variety Protection Act of 1970. Prior 
to enactment of the PVPA, developers of varieties of self- 
pollinated crops such as soybeans had no means of retaining 
control of the variety; anyone who obtained seed could re- 
produce and market the variety. The PVPA gave the devel- 
oper a measure of control over reproduction and sale of the 
variety. The developers of corn hybrid varieties gain such 
control by protecting the identity of the pedigree. 

Since passage of the Plant Variety Protection Act of 1970 
many companies have established soybean breeding pro- 
grams, often employing experienced soybean breeders and 
outstanding students who have been trained in soybean 
breeding programs of the universities or USDA. Company 
varieties began to capture increasing shares of the market. By 
1986 it was estimated that more than half the soybean pro- 
duction in Illinois was in varieties developed in the private 
sector. The proportion is expected to increase. 

The increased prominence of the private sector in develop- 
ing soybean varieties has greatly increased the number of 
people engaged in soybean breeding in the United States and 
has consequently greatly increased the demand for basic 
germplasm and genetic and breeding information from re- 
searchers in public institutions. 



6 

Small Grains 



Improvement in small grain crops became a major Depart- 
ment project when Orville T. Bonnett accepted full-time 
responsibility as a small grain breeder in 1928. His duties 
were directed at breeding improved cultivars of winter wheat 
and spring oats. Since disease resistance was an important 
objective, Bonnett was associated with plant pathologist 
Benjamin Koehler and, beginning about 1940, with Wayne 
M. Bever (USDA), especially on the winter wheat program. 

After World War II, Dr. Bonnett was able to concentrate on 
oats, as Roland O. Weibel assumed responsibility for the 
winter wheat program in 1950-51. Bever continued to work 
with the pathology aspects of winter wheat. Bever was par- 
ticularly interested in soil-borne mosaic and smut of wheat. 
Prior to taking over the winter wheat breeding program, 
Weibel had worked during World War II on special crops 
such as hemp. 

Bonnett continued his work on oat improvement, but he 
also undertook basic research on development and morphol- 
ogy of the grasses, including wheat, oats, corn, and barley. 
His often cited publications on morphology of the grass crops 
still stand as the ultimate authority on developmental mor- 
phology of these crops (Fig. 15). 

Bonnett participated in the development and release of 
'Clinton' oats and several selections from 'Clinton/ This 

45 



46 



variety occupied most of the oat 
acreage in the North Central states 
in the late 1940s and early 1950s. 
'Clinton' was a joint release of agri- 
cultural experiment stations of Illi- 
nois, Iowa, and Indiana. 

Several winter wheat varieties 
were also developed in Bonnett's 
program, including 'Royal' and 
'Saline.' These wheat varieties were 
grown on significant acreage until 
they were replaced by the short, 
stiff-strawed, early maturing varie- 
ties developed at Purdue Univer- 
sity. The Purdue varieties domi- 
nated winter wheat acreage in Illi- 
nois and other soft winter wheat 
states in the 1950s, '60s, and '70s. 
In the spring of 1954 Charles M. 
Brown joined the Department as a 
full-time oat breeder. His major 
objectives were to develop varieties 
with resistance to barley yellow 
dwarf virus with good adaptation 
in Illinois, and to develop winter- 
hardy oats for southern Illinois. 
Barley yellow dwarf virus had be- 
come established and was a serious 
threat to oat production at the 
time. 
Dr. Bever had become increasingly involved with organiza- 
tion of the Department of Plant Pathology, of which he 
became the first Department Head in 1955. So, in 1954, 
USDA hired Robert M. Endo to work with Brown on the plant 
pathology phases of the oat program. After Endo left, Henryk 
Jedlinski replaced him on the USDA staff, serving until his 
death in April 1987. Both Endo and Jedlinski were close 
cooperators of Brown, first with oats, and later with both oats 
and wheat. Much of their effort was directed to the BYDV 
disease, but they also had responsibility for other disease 
problems. 




Fig. 15. Research of Dr. O. T. 
Bonnett on developmental 
morphology of cereals is still 
considered the definitive 
work in cereal morphology. 



47 



The winter oat breeding program 
was discontinued in 1968 when it 
became clear that even though the 
level of winter hardiness had im- 
proved at least 25 percent, it was 
still not good enough to assure 
consistent production of winter 
oats in Illinois. Also it seemed clear 
that winter oats would not be 
grown to a significant extent in Illi- 
nois even if winter hardiness was 
further improved. 

Upon disability and later the 
death of Weibel, Brown accepted 
responsibility for the winter wheat 
breeding program in addition to his 
work on oats. Jedlinski also agreed 
to provide pathology support for 
wheat as well as oats. 

The Brown-Jedlinski oat program 
achieved spectacular success. Many 
varieties resulted and came to 
dominate oat production not only 





Fig 16. Effect of high toler- 
ance to barley yellow dwarf 
virus is shown by' Ogle' vari- 
ety, compared with the sus- 
ceptible 'Clintland'. 



in Illinois and the Mid-West but in 

many other areas as well (Fig. 16). This was achieved as 
Brown carried major administrative responsibility as Associ- 
ate Department Head for more than 20 years. He also served 
as chairman of the Campus Senate committee on athletics 
and later on the Athletic Board during a period when the 
athletic programs of the university were in great turmoil. 
Following the death of Dr. Jedlinski the USDA assigned Adri- 
anna He wings to the project, enabling this highly effective 
cooperative program to continue. 

A new small grain breeder, Frederic L. Kolb, joined the staff 
in May 1987. He worked jointly with Brown and Hewings 
until Dr. Brown's retirement in 1989, when he assumed 
leadership of the small grains program. 



7 

Forages 



Forage crop investigations have been part of the Depart- 
ment programs ever since the Illinois Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station was established more than a hundred years ago. 
In recent years forages have received less attention because of 
the dominance of row crops in Illinois agriculture. Yet, sev- 
eral million acres in the state are in pasture or hay, especially 
in the western and southern parts of the state where topogra- 
phy is less suitable for the intensive tillage associated with 
row crops and where interest in animal agriculture is greatest. 

Emphasis on forage crops in the Department was boosted 
with the arrival on the faculty of Joseph A. Jackobs, a produc- 
tion/management specialist, in 1951 and Carl N. Hittle, a 
plant breeder, in 1953. Hittle was the first forage breeder on 
the staff. His main interest was in red clover, but he also 
worked on orchard grass and birdsfoot trefoil. 

A contemporary of Jackobs and Hittle was plant patholo- 
gist James W. Gerdemann, who later moved into the Depart- 
ment of Plant Pathology when that department was organ- 
ized, while retaining a joint appointment in Agronomy. 
Ambrose W. "Tom" Burger, whose primary responsibility was 
in teaching the introductory course in crop science, carried 
on research in sudan grass management until he took a 100 
percent teaching contract in 1971. 

In 1961 an extension forage specialist position was estab- 
lished. William D. Pardee was the first forage extension 

48 



49 



specialist. He was succeeded by Don W. Graffis in 1966. 
Graffis, in addition to his primary extension assignment, has 
been responsible for the forage variety testing program and 
has conducted research on stand establishment. He was in- 
strumental in organizing the Illinois Forage Council. 

Many faculty members, including Jackobs and Hittle, ex- 
pressed interest in overseas assignments in the Department's 
International Agriculture program. In order to facilitate fac- 
ulty participation in the international program while main- 
taining integrity of domestic programs, a unique scheme was 
established in the forage group. It was decided to employ four 
faculty members for the three forage positions, with the 
understanding that the four would rotate in international 
assignments so that one would be so assigned at any given 
time. 

To implement this plan, Darrell A. Miller was added to the 
faculty. Hittle soon went on an overseas assignment. Miller 
became the forage breeder and also succeeded Hittle as teach- 
ing coordinator. Miller's primary interest has been in alfalfa 
breeding, but to some extent he picked up the work on red 
clover and birdsfoot trefoil. 

Because of reductions in the overseas program and a shift 
in emphasis from institution development to a commodity 




Fig. 17. Demonstration plot of 'Redland' red clover. 



50 

orientation, the rotation into foreign assignments of forage 
specialists was not continued. Jackobs and Hittle stayed in 
assignments in the international program, either overseas or 
on campus, and both became committed to soybean pro- 
grams. 

Later Richard Walgenbach was employed as a successor for 
Jackobs in forage production/management. After he left, 
Kenneth J. Moore succeeded him. His interest was in forage 
physiology and quality evaluation. Moore left in 1987. 

Meanwhile, Clarence J. Kaiser, a Purdue graduate with 
interest in forage production, was named director of the 
Dixon Springs Agricultural Center (DSAC) in 1973. Although 
his assignment was nominally 100 percent administration, 
he carried on some forage management research. After Lee 
Gard, a soil conservation specialist, retired at DSAC, he was 
replaced by James J. Faix, a forage production specialist. His 
assignment was directed at reducing the seasonal cycles in 
pasture availability. Faix left in 1981 and was not replaced. 
Kaiser transferred to Urbana in 1988. 



8 

Crop Physiology 



The Department of Agronomy from its inception in 1899 
has had a strong emphasis on soil fertility, plant nutrition, 
and crop production. By the 1940s studies in these areas had 
led to recognition of plant physiology as an important com- 
ponent of the crop performance system. Earnest B. Earley 
came to the Department in 1929 and began studies in crop 
physiology. He studied ear-shoot development in corn, dem- 
onstrating that dominance of the upper ear-shoot prevents 
development of additional ears on modern corn hybrids. 
Removal of the upper ear-shoot resulted in development of 
an ear at the next lower node. 

Earley did pioneering work on the role of light intensity in 
ovule fertilization during pollination of corn. Using a series 
of lath structures with various amounts of open space, built 
by Richard H. Hageman, Earley showed a high degree of 
inhibition of ovule fertilization by reduced light during a few 
days in the pollination season. This effect was so great that a 
period of cloudy days at the sensitive period might have a 
significant effect on pollination and thus on yield. 

In the 1950s the Department of Agronomy began expand- 
ing its crop physiology program with new emphasis on bio- 
chemistry and cell physiology, a departure from the whole 
plant, ecological approach which had been traditional. It 
soon became the leading physiology group among agronomy 

51 



52 



departments and the standard to which others were com- 
pared. 

The addition of John B. Hanson and Hageman to the 
faculty signalled an intent to focus on basic metabolic activi- 
ties to better understand the performance of crop plants. 

Hanson worked on the uptake of potassium by cell con- 
stituents and the physiology of herbicide action: how respira- 
tion and energy mobilization and transfer were involved and 
in which cell components the significant metabolic reactions 
occurred. New techniques for observing action of mitochon- 
dria (the "power plants" of cells) were available. Hanson 
studied the mitchondria and processes occurring in mem- 
branes. 

Hageman's goal was to learn how the nitrogen metabolism 
system worked, especially in corn, which is quite responsive 
to nitrogen fertilization. He concentrated on nitrate reduc- 
tion. Much of the present knowledge of the enzyme nitrate 
reductase was discovered by Hageman and his students. Hage- 




Fig. 18. Earnest B. Earley used "Tee-Pees" constructed by Richard H. 
Hageman to study the effects of light intensity on pollination in corn. 



53 

man was the first to identify nitrite reductase from plant 
tissue. Further studies showed that nitrite reductase was lo- 
cated in the chloroplast, and that light-generated energy was 
required for conversion of nitrite to ammonium, thus com- 
peting directly with reduction of carbon dioxide. He devel- 
oped procedures for extraction of numerous enzymes from 
the green leaves of crop plants. In association with plant 
breeders he used classical breeding techniques to alter en- 
zyme levels in plants, years before "genetic engineering" 
caught public attention. 

In an attempt to resolve the role of nitrate reductase activ- 
ity as a criterion for selection of superior corn plants, Hage- 
man and Robert J. Lambert initiated divergent selection for 
post-anthesis levels of nitrate reductase in the leaves of corn. 
Increasing the level of nitrate reductase in leaves had no 
effect on grain yields, as the slight decrease in yield over six 
generations of selection could be explained by inbreeding. 
However, selection for low enzyme activity drastically re- 
duced grain yield, but only after six cycles of selection. In- 
creasing the level of fertilizer N partially overcame the low 
yields of the low nitrate reductase strain. This work indicated 
that a nitrate permease in the root may be a critical factor in 
regulating nitrogen metabolism. In their studies of the use of 
physiological traits for selection in corn, Lambert and Hage- 
man found that the concentration of N in the ear leaf had 
potential value in a corn breeding program. 

A review of his and other work on nitrate metabolism by 
Hageman and former research associate Leonard Beevers, 
published in 1969, was later listed in Current Contents as 
among the 1,000 most cited papers of the previous decade. 
Only five other plant science papers were among the 1,000 
listed. 

Following the retirement of Hageman, work in this area 
was continued by Fred E. Below, Donald P. Briskin, and 
Robert H. Teyker. 

The Department was a leading participant in a major proj- 
ect concerning interactions of plants, soil, water, and atmos- 
phere. David E. Koeppe came as a research associate in 1968 
and stayed on the faculty in this project until 1981. The 
central point of his research was mitochondrial action, which 
he extended in many directions. 



54 

When Hanson became Head of the UIUC Department of 
Botany in 1967, he was replaced on the Agronomy faculty by 
Jack M. Widholm. Widholm's interest was in tissue and cell 
culture, so from the time of his arrival the Department be- 
came involved in what has come to be known as biotechnol- 
ogy. Widholm's interest was in the use of tissue and cell 
culture techniques to study amino acid synthesis. The bio- 
technology program in the Department is discussed more 
fully in another section. 

The physiology program in the Department can hardly be 
discussed without inclusion of the large contribution from 
USDA/ARS physiologists who were stationed in the Depart- 
ment. Robert W. Howell had joined the U. S. Regional Soy- 
bean Laboratory in 1952. Joseph T. Woolley of USDA's Soil 
and Water Division came in 1956. Curtis M. Wilson came in 
1959 to work on protein metabolism in corn, replacing Har- 
vey A. Lund who had initiated the work in 1955. Ray E. 
Johnson, Robert W. Rinne, and William L. Ogren joined the 
soybean group between 1962 and 1965, working on mineral 
nutrition, oil metabolism, and photosynthesis, respectively. 
Ogren's project was the first photosynthesis project in USDA 
and probably the first one anywhere which was concerned 
with photosynthetic efficiency in crop production. Evelyn J. 
Weber came in 1966 to work on lipid metabolism in corn. 
James E. Harper came to the soybean group in 1968 after 
Johnson left. The USDA selected Illinois for a major concen- 
tration on photosynthesis research in 1976 and since then 
has added several scientists to its staff in the Department. 

Ogren's work has been particularly notable. He discovered 
that photorespiration is initiated by the oxygenation of ribu- 
lose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ("rubisco"), and 
showed that oxygen is a competitive inhibitor of C0 2 fixa- 
tion by this enzyme, thus explaining the well-known inhib- 
itory effect of oxygen on photosynthesis ("Warburg effect"). 
He quantitatively related the kinetic constants of rubisco to 
leaf photosynthetic gas exchange, developing equations 
which are now the basis of all biochemical models of photo- 
synthetic C0 2 fixation. He identified photorespiration as a 
process competing with photosynthesis which effectively 
limited the photosynthetic productivity of plants that have 
only the C3 photosynthesis system. Corn and sorghum are 



55 

the principal crop plants that have C4 systems and in which 
photorespiration is not significant. In association with 
Widholm, Ogren did an exhaustive search for genotypes of 
soybeans and then of plants with a shorter life cycle which 
would lack photorespiration and thus be more photosyn- 
thetically efficient. No such genotype has been found in a 
normally C3 species. 

John W. Pendleton, Doyle B. Peters (USDA) et al. demon- 
strated that light-enriched environments increased the yields 
of both corn and soybeans, and concluded that light appears 
to be a primary ecological factor limiting grain yields of these 
crops when grown under highly productive conditions. They 
also found that high air temperatures at night reduced yields 
of corn about 40 percent, of wheat almost 50 percent, and of 
soybeans 10 percent from yields of these crops growing at 
cool night temperatures. Detailed studies of the relationship 
of rainfall, temperature, and yields of corn and soybeans over 
a period of many years were carried out by Runge and Odell 
and are described in the section on Pedology. 

Peters et al. discovered that plants obtain significant quan- 
tities of nitrogen from the air through foliar absorption of 
gaseous ammonia, even at naturally-occurring low atmos- 
pheric concentrations. This research had obvious significance 
from a plant nutritional standpoint and also reiterated the 
role of green plants in decontaminating the earth's atmos- 
phere. 

Beginning in 1974, Peters and several collaborators devel- 
oped a program on whole-plant photosynthesis, ranging from 
single leaf to field canopy evaluations. They developed a 
technique for the measurement of photosynthesis, respira- 
tion, and transpiration of plant communities wherein a large 
number of plots could be monitored continuously. Use of 
these techniques resulted in the measurement of various 
environmental and phenological effects on photosynthesis, 
especially in soybeans and corn. Diurnal and meteorological 
effects could be recognized with a precision that had not 
been possible before. 

Members of the USDA soybean group have had a long- 
standing interest in mineral nutrition. The Soybean Labora- 
tory built automatic sub-irrigation facilities in the old Agron- 
omy greenhouse complex south of Davenport Hall that were 



56 




Fig. 19. Apparatus designed and 
constructed by Doyle B. Peters 
(USDA) for repetitive non-destruc- 
tive measurement of photosynthe- 
sis in the field. 



sophisticated for their time. 
When new greenhouses were 
constructed south of Turner 
Hall, similar facilities were in- 
cluded. Many separate nutri- 
ent mixtures could be tested 
simultaneously. However, 
there was a question as to 
whether conditions in the 
greenhouse were close enough 
to those in the field to permit 
satisfactory interpretation of 
results — usually obtained in 
fall, winter, or spring experi- 
ments — for field conditions. 
To reduce this limitation, 
Jackson L. Cartter designed 
and built an apparatus at the 
Agronomy Farm which per- 
mitted the same kind of con- 
trolled nutrient studies as in 
the greenhouse, but with above-ground ambient conditions 
of the field. Recently, Below has established a similar facility 
for field hydroponics studies of corn. 

Using the greenhouse nutrient equipment, Richard L. 
Bernard and Howell found that tolerance of high levels of 
phosphorus in soybeans was conditioned by a single gene. 
Beverly Foote, a post-doctoral research associate, showed that 
the difference in tolerance was due to the ability of tolerant 
varieties to exclude excessive uptake of phosphorus by the 
roots. 

Attention of researchers in soybeans also turned to nitro- 
gen, inspired in part by Hageman's work and recognizing the 
special challenges of the symbiotic nitrogen fixation system. 
In this respect, the work of physiologists paralleled and was 
often collaborative with that of the soil fertility group. Fertil- 
izer nitrogen had an inhibitory effect on symbiotic nitrogen 
fixation. However, James E. Harper found that seedling soy- 
beans respond most favorably to soil (fertilizer) nitrogen. A 
continuing goal of Harper, in cooperation with plant breed- 



57 

ers, has been to find a means of combining the promotional 
effects of fertilizer and symbiotically fixed nitrogen. 

In the 1980s the Department rapidly expanded its work on 
growth modeling. This was stimulated by Donald A. Holt, 
who came as Department Head in 1982 and a year and a half 
later became Director of the Illinois Agricultural Experiment 
Station. The USDA had transferred John Hesketh to the De- 
partment in 1978, and in 1985 also brought in Morris Huck, 
both of whom were experienced in growth modeling. 

The physiology program has attracted large numbers of 
graduate and post-doctoral students. It has benefited from a 
national interest and emphasis on problems of a physiologi- 
cal nature, by physiological issues arising from environmental 
concerns, and by the current interest in biotechnology. In 
turn, funding sources — including the National Science Foun- 
dation, the Rockefeller and Frasch Foundations, the Depart- 
ment of Energy, and the USDA Competitive Grants Pro- 
gram — have been impressed by the quality of the physiology 
program in the Department of Agronomy and of the research 
proposals submitted by members of our faculty. Conse- 
quently the physiology program has grown in numbers of 
staff and students and in productivity. 



9 

Other Crops 



Although corn, soybeans, small grains, and forages pre- 
dominate in Illinois agriculture, staff and students of the 
Department have been involved in studies of many other 
crops. These have included broomcorn, sorghum, Cannabis, 
castor beans, crambe, kenaf, rapeseed, sesame, sweet corn, 
sunflower, Vernonia, and winged bean. 

Broomcorn, once a major crop in Douglas County and still 
important to a few producers there, has been an interest of 
Prof. Henry H. Hadley throughout his career. He has carried a 
small research program which has been of great interest to 
growers and manufacturers of brooms. One prominent per- 
son in the industry, R. J. Nolan, established a broomcorn 
foundation upon his retirement with a provision that Profes- 
sor Hadley would be a member of the foundation's board of 
directors and that income of the foundation would be avail- 
able for his research. Until his retirement in 1987, Dr. Hadley 
continued his collaboration in the evaluation of broomcorn 
varieties with colleagues in several European countries. 

Sorghum is another special interest of Professor Hadley. 
Although his primary responsibility has been with soybeans 
since he joined the Department, he has continued a small 
program with sorghum, with which he had worked at Texas 
A & M University before joining our faculty. Sorghum has 

58 






59 

not become a major crop in Illinois, although there is a 
steady acreage on drouthy soils in southern Illinois. 

Cannabis sativa, later a noxious weed which was illegal to 
produce because of its use as a source of narcotic (marijuana), 
was the subject of a research program during World War II 
due to the urgent need for hemp to make ropes. That pro- 
gram was long since discontinued as natural fibers became 
available from traditional sources and synthetic materials 
assumed increasing importance. 

There is perennial interest in potential oilseed crops. Thus 
Crambe abyssinca, touted as an oil of possible importance for 
industrial uses, was tested for a time at the Dixon Springs 
Agricultural Center and by a few farmers in that area. Market 
outlets have been very limited so the crop has not achieved a 
significant place in Illinois agriculture. 

Kenaf, another potential fiber crop, was evaluated by Pro- 
fessor Thomas Hinesly in the project sponsored by the Metro- 
politan Sanitary District of Chicago concerned with utiliza- 
tion of municipal sludge on agricultural land. It was thought 
that since kenaf is a non-food crop there might be less risk 
from any toxic materials such as cadmium that were con- 
tained in the sludge. Yields at the Northeastern Illinois Agron- 
omy Center near Elwood, where the tests were conducted, 
were only about three tons per acre, compared with reported 
yields of 30 to 40 tons in southern states where kenaf was 
considered for use in the pulp wood industry. 

Rapeseed, a member of the mustard family, has come into 
prominence in Canada and Europe as the source of canola 
vegetable oil, following genetic elimination of erucic acid. 
Interestingly, rapeseed oil has been important industrially 
because of the high level of erucic acid, a component of 
crambe oil which justified research on its industrial potential. 
A dramatic break-through in rapeseed genetics identified 
genotypes with low saturated fatty acids and virtually no 
erucic acid. Development of improved varieties with this 
character followed. Tests and farmer trials in Illinois continue 
on a small scale. 

Sesame produces a high quality oil as well as providing 
seeds for such food products as sesame seed rolls. It was of 
interest to a graduate student, Dorothea Bedigian, who as- 
sembled a large number of genotypes for evaluation on the 



60 



South Farm. The crop is not known, however, to have be- 
come the subject of a major departmental project. Work on 
sesame ended with Bedigian's graduation. 

Sunflower enjoyed quite a boom in the Red River Valley 
area of Minnesota and the Dakotas during the 1970s. Hybrid 
varieties had been developed, using cytoplasmic male steril- 
ity with characteristics very similar to the CMS used in corn 
prior to the southern corn leaf blight problem of 1970. Pro- 
duction reached several million acres, leading marketers to 
seek production in other areas, including Illinois. Market 
conditions did not remain favorable, however, and interest 
in sunflower faded. 

Vernonia is another potential oilseed crop that has been of 
interest to the New Crops group of USDA and has received 
some attention in the Department. 

One of the most interesting exotic crops to receive atten- 
tion in the Department has been winged bean. A discussion 
in the Crop Evolution Laboratory in 1976 brought out the 
observation that most beans in world agricultural trade were 
grown in climates of drouth or medium rainfall. No bean 
crops were known in areas of high rainfall. Is there such a 




Fig. 20. The winged bean, a legume that thrives in the humid tropics, is 
one of the "Other Crops" that have attracted attention of Department sci- 
entists. 



61 

bean? This question intrigued Prof. Theodore Hymowitz, 
who assigned a student a special problem to search the litera- 
ture for a high-rainfall bean crop. He learned that the winged 
bean was such a plant and published a paper reporting this 
fact in Economic Botany. 

Coincidentally, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) 
was looking for potential new crops. The winged bean had 
been suggested by Professor Schultes, of Harvard University. 
The NAS decided to hold a meeting on winged bean and 
began looking for someone who knew something about this 
plant. Hymowitz was invited. As as result of this meeting, 
Hymowitz published a booklet on this potential new crop. 
He also started a newsletter with NAS funding, whimsically 
entitled the "Winged Bean Flyer." 

A small amount of seed was planted at the USDA Plant 
Introduction Station at Homestead, FL. and significant inter- 
est in the crop developed in Asian countries. Winged bean 
research programs now exist in Thailand, Sri Lanka, Papua 
New Guinea, and The Philippines. The "Winged Bean Flyer" 
is now published in The Philippines. 

Hymowitz and the Department are no longer involved 
with the winged bean. However, any importance which the 
crop achieves will be due in important measure to a conversa- 
tion in our Crop Evolution Laboratory. 

Still other crops have at one time or another found a place 
in Department programs. But none has enjoyed a measure of 
success to challenge the few major crops which have domi- 
nated the state's agriculture for the last half century. 



10 

Biotechnology 



The Department became active in what has come to be 
known as biotechnology or genetic engineering or molecular 
biology in 1968 when Jack M. Widholm joined the faculty. 
Widholm's interest was in use of tissue and cell culture 
techniques to study and possibly alter the amino acid status 
of crops. He has been successful in developing appropriate 
media and techniques for indefinite culture of tissues of corn, 
soybeans, and other crops. Recent research advances permit 
regeneration of plants of virtually any line of corn or soy- 
beans from tissue culture. 

Widholm's goal in his study of amino acid systems was to 
find an analog which inhibits normal incorporation of an 
amino acid into protein. The free amino acid thus might 
accumulate to higher levels than normal. In this manner he 
has greatly increased the levels of such amino acids as trypto- 
phan, methionine, and lysine. These are nutritionally essen- 
tial amino acids that cannot be synthesized in the metabolic 
systems of non-ruminant animals and humans. Many foods 
and feeds are deficient in these or other amino acids. 
Widholm's work offers the prospect that amino acid content 
of crops might be increased to relieve such deficiencies. 

The biotechnology program grew slowly, but gathered 
momentum over the years and was well-positioned when 
interest in and funding for biotechnology increased dramati- 

62 



63 

cally around 1980. A contract with Agrigenetics Inc. was a 
landmark in university-industry relations, effecting for the 
first time a much closer relationship of university researchers 
with a company, and leading to new arrangements concern- 
ing proprietary aspects of discoveries in university research. 
Professors Widholm and Hymowitz received significant fund- 
ing from Agrigenetics. 

Hymowitz had turned to biotechnology in search of a 
means of transferring genetic traits such as disease resistance 
and salt tolerance from perennial Glycine species to the culti- 
vated soybean, G. max. Conventional crosses resulted in the 
formation of an embryo which aborted before seed matura- 
tion. Media were sought and found which would make it 
possible to rescue embryos and ultimately culture them into 
mature plants. 

Regeneration is a key problem in biotechnology. A cell or 
tissue may be cultured indefinitely. But can a normal plant be 
regenerated? Regeneration of a higher plant from a single cell 
was first reported in about 1950 with carrot cells. But each 
species presents unique challenges. One of the wild acces- 
sions of G. clandestina was found by Hymowitz to be capable 
of regenerating from leaf tissue. The potential of this trait, 
which would be of great importance to biotechnologists, is 
being explored. 

The Department was the successful competitor for a large 
grant from Standard Oil Company (SOHIO) to establish a 
Center of Excellence in Crop Molecular Genetics and Genetic 
Engineering. All principal investigators are in the Depart- 
ment of Agronomy, but participants in several other depart- 
ments in the Colleges of Agriculture and Liberal Arts and 
Sciences have been funded. Donald A. Holt initially coordi- 
nated the project, and was later succeeded by Department 
Head Lawrence E. Schrader. Under this program several new 
staff members were added to the Department faculty. Among 
those added, Angus G. Hepburn, who came in 1985, is study- 
ing gene transfer and regulation of gene expression. Alan L. 
Kriz, who arrived in 1987, is using molecular techniques to 
alter properties of the corn kernel. And Lila O. Vodkin, who 
also arrived in 1987, is investigating transformation and gene 
expression in soybeans. Vodkin's position was created 
through new state funding for Biotechnology Initiatives. 



64 

The SOHIO grant has been a catalyst that spurred other 
staff additions in biotechnology and related areas. The USDA 
brought Emil M. Orozco, a molecular geneticist who is work- 
ing with William L. Ogren and Archie R. Portis to improve 
photosynthetic efficiency. Donald P. Briskin, a plant bio- 
chemist, joined the faculty in 1985 to work on assimilate 
partitioning. His research on membrane transport, however, 
now integrates molecular approaches to studies of partition- 
ing and transport. The SOHIO grant has provided funds for 
training numerous students and post doctoral associates, but 
perhaps most significantly, it has enhanced multi-discipli- 
nary research approaches that involve plant breeders/geneti- 
cists, physiologists/biochemists, and molecular biologists/ 
geneticists. 



11 

Crop Evolution Laboratory 



The opportunity to add experienced people of interna- 
tional stature to the Departmental faculty is rare. Such an 
opportunity occurred in 1966 and led to creation of the Crop 
Evolution Laboratory. Because of his previous association 
with them, then Department Head Marlowe D. Thorne 
learned of the availability of Jack R. Harlan and Johannes M. 
J. deWet. They were invited to join the Department of Agron- 
omy, Harlan coming in September 1966 and deWet a year 
later to create the Crop Evolution Labortory. 

Establishment of the Crop Evolution Laboratory was made 
possible by funds allocated by the University Research Board 
"to initiate a new program of study of the origin and evolu- 
tion of cultivated plants." A tie-in with the University's rap- 
idly expanding program in international agriculture was a 
key element. Strong support and encouragement was re- 
ceived from Royden Dangerfield, then the chief academic 
officer of the UIUC campus and an ardent supporter of inter- 
national activities. 

Harlan and deWet traveled widely and frequently, and 
were prominent participants in international scientific 
events, committees and other activities. While neither of 
them served assignments on the University's international 
programs (other than a 3-month assignment of Harlan in 

65 



66 

India), no other activity brought more international recogni- 
tion to the Department and College than the work of Harlan 
and deWet. 

Meanwhile, the Crop Evolution Laboratory as a unit of the 
Department of Agronomy became a reality. Students came, 
and the program attracted excellent funding from the Na- 
tional Science Foundation and other public and private agen- 
cies. 

Shortly after coming to Illinois, Harlan and deWet were 
joined by Theodore Hymowitz, who came to the Department 
after an assignment for another university in Brazil. Funds for 
the employment of Hymowitz were provided in a five-year 
grant from the National Soybean Processors Association. The 
interests and experience of Hymowitz in legumes, in chemi- 
cal genetics, and in international agriculture were excellent 
complements to the interests of Harlan and deWet in mono- 
cotyledonous plants. 

Investigations of the Crop Evolution Laboratory were far- 
ranging. All three faculty members were avid plant explorers, 
and they attracted students of similar bent. They collected 
plant specimens in 50 or more countries and many islands of 
the Pacific Ocean area, possibly saving many species from 
extinction. They worked with such organizations as the 
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the 
USDA, Rockefeller Foundation, National Academy of Sci- 
ences, National Research Council, and the International 
Board for Plant Genetic Resources. 

The significance of a discussion in the Crop Evolution 
Laboratory in arousing interest and investigation of the po- 
tential of the winged bean has been reviewed in the section 
on Other Crops. Another such example relates to the history 
of the soybean in the United States. For many years, the first 
reference to soybeans was credited to Mease in 1804. Harlan 
found mention of an earlier reference, which he passed along 
to Hymowitz, who investigated the literature further and 
found evidence that the soybean was introduced to North 
America by Samuel Bowen in 1765. Bowen, a former seaman 
employed by the East India Company, brought soybeans to 
Savannah, GA, from China via London. In Georgia, the soy- 
beans were used to manufacture soy sauce and noodles, 
which were exported to England. 






67 




Fig. 21. Work of the Crop Evolution Laboratory emphasized the parallel 
evolution of crops and civilization. 



The work of the Laboratory has refined our understanding 
of variability in crops, and has improved taxonomic descrip- 
tions in soybeans, sorghum, millets, etc. The basis of interac- 
tion of wild and weedy races with cultivated ones has been 
studied. 

Crossability, the key to transfer of desirable traits to culti- 
vated genotypes, was explored in many species. Examples of 
wide-cross studies include Tripsacum to maize and sugar cane 
to sorghum. Wide crosses made possible the transfer of resis- 
tance to six diseases from Tripsacum to maize. 

Members of the Crop Evolution Laboratory offered courses 
that have uniquely enhanced the educational opportunities 
of upper level undergraduate and graduate students. Harlan's 
course, "Crops and Man," explored the concomitant devel- 
opment of human civilization and cultivated plants. Listed 
only in Agronomy offerings, the course attracted students 
from colleges across the campus. deWet's course on "Origin 
of Variation in Plants/ 7 listed in Agronomy and in Botany/ 
Plant Biology, was a key course for graduate students in all 
plant science departments with interests in plant variability 
and its origins. Hymowitz's course, "Evolution of Agricultural 
Economies/' cross-listed in Agronomy, Geography, and 



68 

Anthropology, traced the evolution of agricultural econo- 
mies from the primitive to complex modern systems. 

Many graduate students were attracted to the Department 
by the quality of the program and the unique relationships 
between faculty members and between faculty and students. 
Seminars, both formally listed and informally convened at 
lunch, were almost daily events. Faculty members shared 
interchangeably in counseling functions, so that it was hardly 
possible to know which faculty member might be the official 
advisor of a given student. 

The philosophy and importance of the Crop Evolution 
Laboratory is well described in the following paragraphs 
quoted from a descriptive brochure prepared by the Labora- 
tory faculty in 1977: 

"Cultivated plants are legitimate subjects for study in their 
own right, aside from the very practical considerations of 
supplying basic information to plant breeders. They have 
undergone remarkable changes in a relatively short period of 
time and, therefore, represent dynamic, labile genetic sys- 
tems exceptionally well suited for experimental studies of 
evolution. Among cultivated plants, one can find examples 
of essentially all the kinds of genetic systems and evolution- 
ary mechanisms known. In addition to the cultivated plants 
themselves, we find that many weed species have become 
adapted to or even dependent upon the disturbance of the 
plowed field in a span of time that can be measured histori- 
cally. A serious study of the origin of cultivated plants and 
their associated weeds provides a unique opportunity for 
understanding the forces of evolution. Few problems in all 
biology are so pregnant with opportunity and so appallingly 
neglected. 

"Cultivated plants mean more to man than mere sources 
of food. They are artifacts in the sense that they have been 
shaped by man and his activities. They are a part of his 
culture; they influence his outlook, his religions, his social, 
political, and economic structures. They are so woven into 
the matrix of human existence that any serious study of 
crops is also a study of man, and a study of crop plants can be 
justified as readily on anthropological grounds as on agro- 
nomic, botanical, geographical, ecological, or genetic 
grounds. It is precisely because of the widely overlapping 



69 

interests from classical humanities to anthropology to bot- 
any to plant breeding and biochemistry that studies of the 
origin and evolution of cultivated plants have exceptional 
heuristic and pedagogical value." 

As the age of genetic engineering emerged the members of 
the Crop Evolution Laboratory moved to add those new tools 
to their study of crops. Particularly in the area of transfer of 
genetic material across previously impassable barriers, the 
promise of genetic engineering is appealing. 

However, the glory days of the Crop Evolution Laboratory 
were coming to a close. Harlan retired in 1985. deWet retired 
a year later to become a department head in the International 
Center for Research in the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in 
India. The Laboratory as it had been known for nearly 20 
years ceased to exist. 



12 

Weed Science 



During most of the years from the beginnings of agricul- 
ture until the end of World War II, farmers had few means of 
dealing with weeds. Weeds were a fact of life — something 
that farmers just had to live with. 

Morrow and Hunt studied cultivation of corn in the earli- 
est days of the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, 1888 
to 1893, and concluded that about the only reason to culti- 
vate was to remove weeds. This was reiterated about 40 years 
later by D. C. Wimer. 

There was no "weed man" on the Department of Agron- 
omy staff in those days. But as agriculture became more 
scientific, the possibility of and need for weed control were 
increasingly topics of conversation and speculation. John J. 
Pieper, a forage crops specialist, talked about weed control in 
the 1930s, and deserves to be recognized as the first person in 
the Department to develop some specialization in weed con- 
trol. After Dr. Pieper's death, Lloyd V. Sherwood joined the 
faculty in 1940 and began to do research on weed control, in 
addition to teaching a course in Crop Production. He also 
wrote a manual on Crop Production. Sherwood left the De- 
partment to join Monsanto Company in 1947. Robert F. 
Fuelleman, another forage crops specialist, assumed duties 
related to weed control after Sherwood's departure. 



70 



71 



Weed control changed dramatically after World War II 
with the introduction of the first selective herbicide, 2,4- 
dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). This was a "miracle 
material." It revolutionized weed control and was the foun- 
dation of a new discipline, weed science. At the time, Illinois 
farmers were growing about three acres of corn for every acre 
of soybeans. Weeds were mostly broad-leaf dicotyledenous 
plants. 2,4-D fit perfectly into this system as a corn herbicide. 
Its use spread rapidly among farmers, limited mainly by 
availability of the chemical and suitable application equip- 
ment. 

There was no such thing as a low-volume sprayer. Re- 
searchers and farmers adapted and improvised equipment. 
The first field experiments with 2,4-D in the Department 
were done with a sprayer borrowed from the Grounds Main- 
tenance division of the University. It delivered 150 gallons of 
water per acre. Farmers were enthusiastic, and anyone who 
had any experience at all was regarded as an expert. The 
logistics of supplying the large volumes of water required for 
existing sprayers made the need for low volume equipment 




Fig. 22. With increasing awareness and concern of possible effects of 
pesticides on the environment, the weed science group undertook studies 
of pesticide degradation and established this apparatus at the South Farm 
to determine the effects of aeration and other treatments on degradation. 



72 

urgent. Equipment and techniques for low volume spray 
have improved steadily, with significant contributions from 
Department scientists and colleagues in the Department of 
Agricultural Engineering and in industry. 

Fred W. Slife came to the University as a student in 1941 
and became acquainted with Sherwood and Fuelleman be- 
fore entering military service. He returned after the war to 
complete his bachelor's degree. He accepted a graduate assis- 
tantship in 1947 and asked to work on weed control with 2,4- 
D. A year later he was appointed a full-time assistant. He 
continued graduate study and completed his PhD in 1952, 
the first PhD in weed science at the University and possibly 
the first one anywhere. Modern weed science and the devel- 
opment of the Department's outstanding teaching, research, 
and extension programs in weed science have paralleled Slife's 
career. 

Questions to crops extension specialists about the new 
chemical weed control increased rapidly. They were difficult, 
if not impossible, for crops extension specialists to answer 
with available information. Walter O. Scott had recently 
joined the crops extension staff, and took on responsibility 
for weed extension in addition to other duties. But demand 
continued to grow. It was about 10 years until the first full- 
time weed extension specialist, Earl H. Spurrier, joined the 
staff in 1957. But in two years he was lured away to an 
industrial position with Monsanto, to be replaced by Ralph L. 
Gantz. Gantz, too, stayed with the extension program but a 
short time before leaving for a job in industry. 

Weed extension responsibility was assumed by Ellery L. 
Knake in 1960, to be joined in 1965 by Marshall D. 
McGlamery. Both were still with the Department in 1988. 

Weed science was not the subject of a specific course until 
1952, when Slife offered such a course for the first time. There 
was great interest among students. When McGlamery came 
on the staff, he was assigned responsibilities for teaching as 
well as extension. He has taught the beginning course in 
weed science for many years. In addition to offering it to 
resident students, McGlamery taught the weed science course 
regularly as an extramural offering at various locations 
throughout the state. 



73 

The weed science staff was small in the early years and has 
never been very large. Knake had a quarter-time research 
responsibility so, with Slife, the total strength of budgeted 
weed research was about one full-time-equivalent person. 
Other work on weed science did not show up in formal 
budgets. George E. McKibben, at the Dixon Springs Agricul- 
tural Center, began work with weed control chemicals as 
soon as they became available, and continued work in this 
area until his retirement. McKibben's work was especially 
significant for soils in the southern part of Illinois. John B. 
Hanson, during his years in the Department before moving 
to the Department of Botany, devoted a major part of his 
time to the physiology of herbicide action and selectivity. 
The University staff was augmented in 1964 when USDA 
assigned Loyd M. Wax, an agronomist, and Edward W. Stoller, 
a plant physiologist, to projects on weed science research in 
the Department. 

During the last decade the weed science group has also 
included academic professional positions, funded in part 
from sources related to the Environmental Protection Agency. 
A position established under the Pesticide Impact Assessment 
Program (PIAP) was held successively by Randall L. Nelson, 
Micheal D. Owen, and David Pike. An extension agronomist 
position for preparation of training programs for scouts and 
crop protection consultants and to encourage adoption of 
integrated pest management techniques was filled by Wil- 
liam S. Curran in January 1986. Diane Anderson held an 
extension assistant position in the Pesticide Applicator Train- 
ing Program. 

Weed science has enjoyed a productive symbiotic relation- 
ship with plant physiology. Establishment of a program in 
basic plant physiology in the Department was inspired to a 
significant extent by needs which were felt strongly in the 
weed science area. John B. Hanson and Richard H. Hageman 
worked closely with the weed science group and advised 
many weed science students, some of whom also worked 
with plant physiologists and biochemists in other depart- 
ments. Later, Jack M. Widholm worked with weed science 
students using tissue culture techniques in their research on 
herbicide action. 



74 

The selectivity of 2,4-D herbicidal activity, and that of 
other compounds that came along later, resulted in changes 
in the spectrum of weeds on the farm. Many new compounds 
were developed, including some that would control grassy 
weeds in broad-leaf crops. Questions arose as to the effect of 
repeated use of these chemicals on the weed population. Slife 
and his students conducted a 12-year study on the effects of 
continuous use of the same herbicide or of rotating herbi- 
cides on the weed population. They found rapid decreases in 
weed seed population in the soil because weeds were being 
killed before they could form seeds. 

The Illinois group was instrumental in the establishment 
of the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA), which has 
had its headquarters for many years in Champaign, and of 
the North Central Weed Control Conference. Knake and Slife 
each served as President of the WSSA. Walter C. Jacob served 
as secretary-treasurer for many years, to be succeeded by Slife. 

Since 1952 nearly 100 graduate students have received 
master's and doctor's degrees in weed science in the Depart- 
ment (Table 1). Many have gone on to leadership positions in 
academia, government, and industry. The weed science pro- 
gram continues to enjoy a strong demand from graduate 
applicants and employers. 



13 

Soil Chemistry and Fertility 



Soil scientists of the Department have contributed greatly 
to an understanding of essential nutrient elements which 
plants obtain from soil and fertilizer. The three primary ele- 
ments, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), are 
those most frequently added in fertilizers. 

In 1937, Roger H. Bray and colleagues from the Illinois 
Geological Survey established the identification, composi- 
tion, and structure of illite, one of the most common clay 
minerals. Illite was named for the State of Illinois; one of the 
reference sites is near Fithian in Vermilion County. Illite is a 
potassium-bearing clay mineral in which K+ ions fit between 
the crystal units and thereby act as binding agents to limit 
expansion of the crystal. Illite is sometimes referred to as 
hydrous mica. 

Other work by Bray and associates showed that both re- 
lease and fixation of K occur within illite, which includes 
fixed K and replaceable K. Potassium also occurs in some 
primary minerals. 

Soils contain large amounts of total K; but only a small 
amount, usually 1 to 2 percent, is readily available to plants. 
Most quick tests for readily available K measure replaceable K 
plus the very small amount of water-soluble K. Potassium 
fertilizer is then recommended on the basis of these soil tests 
in relation to crop responses. 

75 



76 



Phosphorus occurs in soils in both inorganic and organic 
forms, each of which may be further subdivided. In order to 
develop useful soil tests, Agronomy Department researchers 
found that it was necessary to extract and measure the vari- 
ous forms of P, and correlate the amounts present with crop 
response. This approach replaced earlier soil test methods 
which attempted to simulate plant extraction of P. 

In 1941, S. R. Dickman, a graduate student, and Bray 
reported the effectiveness of the fluoride ion in replacing 
adsorbed phosphate. After completing field and laboratory 
studies to measure phosphate adsorption by Illinois soils, 
Bray and L. Touby Kurtz developed methods for determining 
total, organic, and available forms of P in soils. They devel- 
oped the P-l and P-2 soil tests. The P-2 test was developed to 
measure acid-soluble phosphorus in soils, such as is applied 
in rock phosphate. The other method, which became known 
as the Bray P-l, became widely accepted after a National Soil 
Test Work Group study in 1956 showed it to be the phospho- 
rus test most highly correlated with crop response and least 
affected by soil properties. The paper published in 1945 by 
Bray and Kurtz describing the P-l test was recognized as a 

"Citation Classic" by Current 
Contents in 1987. 

Encouragement of testing 
for soil acidity (pH) and for 
available P and K has been an 
important activity in the De- 
partment for many years. Af- 
ter accurate soil tests for avail- 
able P and K were developed 
during the early 1940s, the 
Department encouraged the 
development of soil testing 
laboratories throughout Illi- 
nois. In 1987 there were 50 
private and county Farm Bu- 
reau soil testing laboratories in 
Illinois, which analyzed ap- 
proximately 400,000 soil 

Fig. 23. Roger H. Bray, pioneer in , J ,, ,_, ^ 

developing methods for soil analy- samples annually. The Depart- 
S1S ment trains soil testing techni- 




77 

dans, monitors the accuracy of soil test results from laborato- 
ries throughout Illinois, and helps solve technical problems 
which may arise. Alfred U. Thor, James G. Laverty, and 
Theodore R. Peck have been leaders in this work. 

In contrast to P and K, which are relatively immobile in 
soils, added N is usually readily transformed to nitrate, which 
is mobile. In 1954, Bray elaborated on the nutrient mobility 
concept, relating it to the ability of different plants to forage 
for nutrients as they grow. Plants obtain relatively immobile 
nutrients, such as P and K, from a thin layer of soil adjacent 
to each root surface, which Bray designated the "root surface 
sorption zone/' Since these thin root surface sorption zones 
represent only a small part of the soil, the roots extract only a 
small part of the relatively immobile nutrients present. There- 
fore, the quantities of immobile nutrients required for high 
crop yields are much greater than are found in the crop. In 
contrast, mobile nutrients such as nitrate (along with accom- 
panying ions) can move with soil water in the entire root 
surface sorption zone, so the amount of a mobile nutrient in 
the rooting zone need not be much greater than the crop 
content. 

Nitrogen is important for plant growth but it can create 
environmental problems if it occurs in excess concentrations 
in water. Regardless of the form of N added for crop produc- 
tion, it is transformed into nitrate in aerobic soils and be- 
comes mobile. Amounts added are intended to meet the 
needs of the crop during one growing season, since the soil 
has limited capacity to store N. Therefore, N recommenda- 
tions are based primarily on the economic optimum rate and 
field experience, rather than on soil analyses. 

Nitrogen research often centers around the partitioning of 
nitrogen in the soil, crop, and losses through leaching and 
denitrification. Denitrification has been difficult to measure 
and control because losses occur as gases such as N 2 0, and 
N 2 . Agronomy staff members have contributed much toward 
understanding N for crop production and for environmental 
management. Use of 15 N-enriched NO s enabled Roland D. 
Hauck, a graduate student, and Sigurd W. Melsted, in col- 
laboration with Peter Yankwich of the Department of Chem- 
istry, to develop equations in 1956 which continue to be the 
basis for calculating nitrogen loss during denitrification. 



78 

Kurtz and his students conducted a series of field experi- 
ments to study the uptake by crops and the residual effects of 
15 N-labeled fertilizers. Results reflected growing conditions 
and the vigor of the crop. Lowell D. Owens found that after 
two years, approximately one-third of the fertilizer N was in 
the soil, one-third was in the crop and leachate, and one- 
third was unaccounted for and was assumed to have been 
denitrified. Robert L. Westerman found 51-52 percent to be 
recovered in the crops during the first season, and another 4- 
6 percent during the next year. At the end of the second 
season, 22-26 percent of the initial application remained in 
the soil. It appeared that nearly all inorganic fertilizer N was 
taken out of the soil and most of the residual fertilizer N was 
in relatively stable organic forms. After 5 years, the fertilizer 
N had equilibrated with soil N in the organic matter. 

In another experiment with more favorable growing con- 
ditions, more than 90 percent of fertilizer N was recovered in 
crops during the first year. Measurement of residual N was 
not attempted. 

Since previous research had shown that denitrification 
(loss of N through volatilization of N 2 and N 2 gases from 
soils) was important in Illinois soils, work on denitrification 
was intensified after a mass spectrometer was acquired in 
1978. Utilizing earlier findings and modern instrumentation, 
Robert S. Siegel, Hauck, Richard L. Mulvaney, and Kurtz 
developed procedures that permitted analyses of natural 
atmospheric gas samples containing N 2 and N z O evolved 
from soils treated with 15 N-labeled fertilizer. Further exten- 
sions of the procedures and applications to the study of 
denitrification were made by Mulvaney, Kurtz, and Charles 
W. Boast. This work is continuing. 

Frank J. Stevenson,who joined the Agronomy faculty in 
1953, and his students have contributed much to our under- 
standing of nitrogen, organic matter, and methods for study- 
ing these important constituents in soils and geologic materi- 
als. Stevenson demonstrated that soil organic matter is com- 
posed of compounds with chemically acceptable structures 
having recognizable groupings, bonds, and predictable prop- 
erties and reactions. His work with humic and fulvic acids 
and their complexes with metal ions helped to explain how 
heavy metals introduced into soils as contaminants may 



79 

combine with organic constituents to become insoluble, 
immobile, and thus environmentally safer. In the geochemis- 
try area, he demonstrated that much ammonium nitrogen is 
held within the lattice structures of silicate minerals in sedi- 
ments and sedimentary rocks. Ammonium in sedimentary 
rocks constitutes the largest reservoir of nitrogen in the ter- 
restrial system, contrary to the common assumption that the 
atmosphere is the largest reservoir. 

Edward H. Tyner identified and measured insoluble forms 
of soil phosphorus. While working on two foreign assign- 
ments in The Philippines (see the section on International 
Agronomy) and subsequently with graduate students, Tyner 
did intensive research on submerged or paddy soils, which 
are used for rice production in many parts of the world. He 
also studied soil sulfur, especially excess sulfur, which is a 
problem in some submerged (paddy) soils and in materials 
disturbed by surface mining for coal. 

Calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are essential plant nu- 
trients. Both elements occur in relatively large amounts in 
most Illinois soils and are rarely deficient. Limestone, which 
is applied to reduce soil acidity, also supplies Ca and Mg to 
crops. However, Ca and Mg deficiencies sometimes occur in 
acid sandy soils. Bray, Kurtz, and their students, K. L. Cheng 
and Billy B. Tucker, developed analytical methods that were 
widely used to determine amounts of Ca and Mg in soils and 
plant materials prior to the development of the atomic ad- 
sorption procedures. 

Releases from organic matter decomposition plus aerial 
deposition from burning fossil fuels have historically pro- 
vided enough sulfur to produce satisfactory crops in Illinois. 
Precipitation collected during the growing seasons contained 
from 4 to 19 pounds of S per acre. The average SO z content of 
Illinois air has decreased from .03 ppm in 1970, when Illinois 
air pollution standards were established, to .01 ppm in 1984. 
In studies after the new standards were in effect, Robert G. 
Hoeft found that corn responded to applied S in 6 percent of 
the field experiments and in 60 percent of the greenhouse 
experiments during the second cropping period. 

The soils in Illinois developed primarily from loess and 
drift, and have a diverse mineralogy. Micronutrient problems 
are rare, but deficiencies of boron, iron, manganese, and zinc 



80 

may occur under special circumstances. Little research on 
minor element deficiencies has been conducted in the De- 
partment in recent years. 

Melsted, Harry L. Motto, and Peck have determined critical 
plant nutrient composition values for corn, soybeans, wheat, 
and alfalfa. At lower levels growth stresses may be expected to 
occur, for which additions of appropriate micronutrient and 
major nutrient elements are needed. William M. Walker et al. 
made a 3-year study of soil analyses and plant analyses of 
corn and soybeans for major nutrients and micronutrients in 
about three-fourths of the counties in Illinois. Of the soils 
sampled, they found that 34, 28, and 54 percent needed 
moderate to large additions of limestone, P, and K, respec- 
tively. Some micronutrient plant analyses were correlated 
with certain soil properties. For example, as soil pH increased, 
leaf manganese and zinc decreased. 



14 

Pedology and Mineralogy 



Pedology 

Pedology is the branch of soil science concerned with the 
morphology, genesis, classification, and geography of soils in 
the natural landscape. From its inception in 1902, pedology 
work in the Department has had the objective to delineate 
different kinds of soil in Illinois, document their properties 
and genesis, and encourage the use of this information to 
manage soils wisely. This information, plus results of soil 
tests, provides site-specific recommendations for detailed soil 
management practices concerning land use, drainage, ero- 
sion control, fertilization, tillage, moisture-holding capacity, 
crop adaptation, herbicide application, and engineering prop- 
erties. Detailed soil maps are also used for other purposes 
such as land appraisal and land taxation. 

Cyril G. Hopkins started soil survey and mapping work in 
1902. From 1904 to 1920 it was under the leadership of 
Jeremiah G. Mosier. Raymond S. Smith was the leader from 
1922 to 1948. Subsequent leaders of soil survey and classifica- 
tion in the Agronomy Department were Russell T. Odell, 
1948-1970, Joe B. Fehrenbacher, 1970-1982, and Ivan J. 
Jansen, 1982 to date. 



R1 



82 



Soil survey work was cooperative between the University of 
Illinois and USDA during 1902 and 1903, but USDA with- 
drew from the program in 1903. In 1943 a cooperative pro- 
gram was resumed, and has continued to the present time. 
Early emphasis was on the rapid mapping of soils. Modern 
soil science developed during the 1920s with recognition of 
the significance of horizons in soil profiles, the crystalline 
structure of clays, etc. The introduction of aerial photographs 
for base maps in 1937 increased soil mapping accuracy and 
detail. These advances and greater emphasis on research re- 
sulted in county soil maps and reports which were progres- 
sively more accurate and more widely used. 

From 1946 to 1966, staff members from the Department 
and USDA/Soil Conservation Service (SCS), worked together 
in soil survey field parties. During the latter part of this 
period there was a gradual shift in pedology responsibilities 
in Illinois. Since 1966, Department pedology staff members 
have devoted most of their effort to research, graduate train- 
ing, and soil correlation, and the SCS has assumed major 




Fig. 24. John D. Alexander with newly extracted soil core, and the hydrau- 
lically-powered probe used to obtain such cores. 



83 

responsibility for soil mapping and publication of soil survey 
reports. 

Of the 102 counties in Illinois, 80 counties have modern, 
detailed soil surveys published or in process of publication. 
Soil surveys are being conducted in 20 additional counties. 
The remaining two counties need modern, detailed soil sur- 
veys. 

The first modern soil association map of Illinois was pub- 
lished in 1950 by Herman L. Wascher et al. Revised general 
maps with text showing soil associations were published in 
1967 and 1984 by Joe B. Fehrenbacher et al. The 1984 map is 
much more detailed than previous maps. 

In 1951, soil scientists of the USDA, various states, the 
Department, and a few other countries embarked on coop- 
erative work to develop a new, comprehensive system of soil 
classification. Working copies of this new soil classification 
system were released in 1960 during the Seventh Congress of 
the International Soil Science Society. After further discus- 
sion and refinement, the adopted system was published as 
So/7 Taxonomy, USDA-SCS Handbook 436, 1975. Guy D. 
Smith, a member of the Department in the 1930s and 1940s, 
had a major role in developing Soil Taxonomy. This soil 
classification system is widely used throughout the world. In 
fact, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization 
soil classification system draws heavily on Soil Taxonomy. 

Most of the soil genesis research involved soils formed in 
loess or till, the two major soil parent materials in the state. 
In about two-thirds of Illinois, the soils developed in loess, a 
silty, wind-blown deposit. In addition, loess occurs in the 
upper part of the profile of many other soils. Loess is an 
important factor in the high productivity of Illinois soils 
because of its medium texture, high available moisture-hold- 
ing capacity, mixed mineralogy, and favorable nutrient lev- 
els. 

Although loess has been recognized in Illinois for more 
than a century, most research concerning its distribution and 
relation to soil properties has been done during the period 
from 1934 to the present by soil scientists in the Department. 
In addition, some staff members of the Illinois Geological 
Survey have worked on the stratigraphy and age of various 
loess deposits. 



84 

On the basis of field studies more than 50 years ago, 
Raymond S. Smith and Ethan A. Norton began documenting 
the thickness of loess in various parts of Illinois and the 
different degrees of soil profile development which were 
associated with different thicknesses. In 1936 they published 
a generalized map of loess thickness in Illinois. Roger H. Bray 
determined chemical and physical changes which occurred 
in different stages of soil development and associated loess 
thicknesses. 

A more detailed total loess-thickness map was published in 
the study of "Illinois Loess" by Guy D. Smith in 1942. He 
concluded that thickness and texture of loess were linear 
functions of the logarithm of the distance from the source. 
Later studies by Charles J. Frazee and Fehrenbacher, and W. 
C. Krumbein, of the University of Chicago, showed that the 
relationship of loess thickness and particle size to distance 
from a source is best described by additive exponential mod- 
els, rather than a logarithmic function. 

Smith also showed that the carbonate content of loess 
decreases as the loess becomes thinner. Differences in the 
profiles of grassland soils formed in various thicknesses of 
loess were attributed primarily to differences in the age of 
that portion of the loess in which the solum developed. 
These pioneering studies of loess and associated soils pro- 
vided a sound framework for the mapping, classification, and 
management of loessial soils throughout the north-central 
region of the United States. 

When Guy D. Smith used leaching of carbonates to calcu- 
late the effective age of soils in the maturity sequence, he 
assumed a uniform carbonate composition and rate of depo- 
sition of Peoria loess. H. Joseph Kleiss and Fehrenbacher later 
concluded that the assumptions were not correct when they 
studied chronologically defined and mineralogically distinct 
zones within the loess. The younger, upper two clay mineral 
zones comprised about 70 percent of the total Peoria loess, 
and they were deposited six times faster than the lower two 
increments. Also, the lower increments contained less car- 
bonates than the upper zones. Therefore, differences in soil 
development along the loess thinning-soil maturity sequence 
could not be attributed solely to age differences, as was 
previously suggested. 



85 

In 1986 Fehrenbacher et al. published more detailed maps 
of the thicknesses of Peoria, Roxana, and total loess in Illinois 
and summarized their effects on loess-derived soils. They 
concluded that the best mechanism for explaining stronger 
soil development in the thinner loess appeared to be a wetter 
soil environment associated with a larger potential gradient 
for base removal where thin loess overlies acid, very slowly 
permeable Illinoian paleosols. Six stages of soil profile devel- 
opment became recognized in the maturity sequence of loess- 
derived soils. In order of increasing development, the six 
stages that developed under grass vegetation are the Joy, 
Muscatine, Ipava, Herrick, Cowden, and Cisne soil series. 

Edward C. A. Runge suggested the use of energy vectors, in 
addition to conventional methods, to study the successive 
changes that occur in soil development. This model may be 
likened to a chromatographic column and focuses on the 
energy relationships between moisture and soil constituents 
which are active in soil development. 

Glacial till of Wisconsinan age is the predominant parent 
material of soils in northeastern Illinois. These glacial tills 
differ significantly in texture, calcium carbonate content, 
depth of leaching, and permeability. Among the medium- 
and fine-textured tills, Eric Winters and Wascher established 
four groups of tills and associated soils whose properties were 
different enough to form the basis for mapping soils in the 
area studied. Russell S. Stauffer confirmed that in these youth- 
ful soils the profile characteristics were influenced more by 
differences in parent materials than by other factors. Odell 
found that the productivity of these different till-derived 
soils ranged from medium to high and that the physical 
properties limited both their inherent productive capacity 
and their responsiveness to improved management. 

In working throughout northeastern Illinois, Wascher et 
al. encountered a wider textural range of soils associated with 
glacial till. Two new coarser groups of soils were found, thus 
making a total of six textural groups. The properties of associ- 
ated soils were determined and a map was made to show the 
distribution of the six different textural groups of glacial till. 

From 1935 to 1975, high priority was given to mapping 
till-derived soils in northeastern Illinois because subsoil prop- 
erties, rather than surface characteristics, determine their 



86 

management needs, productivity, and economic value. Ero- 
sion control and drainage are serious problems on soils with 
clayey subsoils in this area. By 1975, detailed soil maps were 
available for all but one of 22 counties in northeastern Illi- 
nois where till-derived soils predominate. The remaining 
county is now being mapped. 

Beginning in 1938, long-time records of crop yields and 
soil treatment were collected from detailed farm accounts 
and analyzed by Guy D. Smith and Odell to determine the 
productivity of major soils under different levels of manage- 
ment and to develop soil productivity ratings. Most of these 
farm records were kept in cooperation with the Farm Busi- 
ness/Farm Management Service in the Department of Agri- 
cultural Economics. Long-time (1925-1944) crop yields from 
major soils in central Illinois under different levels of man- 
agement were summarized by Odell in 1947. 

In 1950, yields of corn, soybeans, wheat, and oats grown 
under a moderately high level of management were pub- 
lished for every established soil type in Illinois. Productivity 
indices for each soil type were also given for grain crops 
under both low and moderately high levels of management, 
for forage crops under a moderately high level of manage- 
ment, and for deciduous and conifer timber crops on less 
productive soils. 

Odell determined by objective sampling methods the yields 
of corn obtained from Swygert and Tama silt loams as influ- 
enced by thickness of surface soil, weather, and other envi- 
ronmental conditions. Loss of dark-colored topsoil reduced 
corn yields much more on Swygert silt loam, which has a 
slowly permeable subsoil, than on Tama silt loam, which has 
a moderately permeable subsoil. 

Richard H. Rust, a graduate student, and Odell studied the 
effects of rainfall and temperature during the growing season 
and of management practices, on crop yields from various 
soils. They also measured the reliability of crop yield esti- 
mates for specific soils under different management practices 
and weather conditions. 

This work led to more detailed studies of the relation 
between rainfall, temperature, and the yields of corn and 
soybeans on the Agronomy South Farm at Urbana by Runge 



87 

and Odell. Weather conditions 50 to 74 days before and 14 to 
30 days after full tassel, plus the upward trend in yields, 
explained approximately 75 percent of the corn yield vari- 
ability from 1903 through 1956. Rainfall and maximum daily 
temperature June 25 through September 20 explained 68 
percent of the variation in soybean yields from 1909 through 
1957. Above-normal rainfall during July (period of major 
vegetative growth) and from mid-August to mid-September 
(grain filling period) led to increased soybean yields, but 
abundant rainfall during other periods resulted in decreased 
yields. Normal maximum temperatures during July and Au- 
gust are too high for optimum soybean yields. Corn has a 
single peak need for above average moisture before and dur- 
ing full tassel, whereas soybeans have two peak needs, one 
during major vegetative growth and another during the grain 
filling period. 

Since soil management practices and crop yields have pro- 
gressively improved with time, Odell and William R. Osch- 
wald revised crop yields and productivity indices for each 
established soil type in Illinois. Estimated crop yields per acre 
were given for corn, soybeans, wheat, oats, alfalfa hay, and 
mixed pasture under basic and high levels of management. 
Soil productivity indices were also given for grain crops and 
forage crops under basic and high levels of management. 
Annual timber growth per acre was estimated for deciduous 
and conifer trees on less productive soils. In 1978, Fehren- 
bacher et al. updated crop yields for Illinois soil types and 
added adjustments for increasing slope and erosion. Crop 
yields and soil productivity indices are used for many pur- 
poses such as farm management and land appraisal. In recent 
years, productivity indices have been used throughout Illi- 
nois as a basis for tax assessment. 

Root distribution of crops is dependent upon the genetic 
character of plants, soil properties, and environmental fac- 
tors such as climate. During a 24-year period, 1950 through 
1973, Fehrenbacher and his associates studied the rooting 
pattern of important crops (corn, soybeans, wheat, alfalfa, 
and mixed meadow) in widely different soil types in Illinois. 
They found that the rooting depth of crops determines to a 
large extent the amount of moisture that they can extract 



88 







2 ft. 



3 ft. 



4 ft. 



from soils. For optimum 
growth, plants need to draw 
from soil moisture reserves to 
supplement rainfall during the 
growing season. 

In fertilized Muscatine silt 
loam, a deep, moderately per- 
meable soil, corn roots ex- 
tended to a depth of 6V2 feet. 
In fertilized Elliott silt loam, 
which has calcareous, silty clay 
loam glacial till with a bulk 
density up to 1.76, and poor 
structure at a depth of 24 
inches, corn roots penetrated 
only 3 feet. Corn rooting 
depths in Cisne silt loam, 
which is low in fertility and 
has a claypan subsoil, were 
very different in unfertilized 
and fertilized plots. Corn roots 
penetrated to only about 3 feet 
in unfertilized Cisne, but to 5 
feet in fertilized Cisne. Soil 
treatment increased crop 
yields on Cisne silt loam not only because needed plant 
nutrients were supplied but also because roots grew deeper 
and were able to extract needed moisture from the lower 
subsoil. 

Similar results were obtained with soybeans and a mixture 
of timothy, red clover, and alfalfa on Cisne silt loam. Alfalfa 
did not grow on unfertilized Cisne, and the depth of alfalfa 
rooting in fertilized, poorly-drained Cisne was less than in 
better-drained soils. 

Corn root penetration studies were made by Fehrenbacher 
and Rust in four dark-colored, fertilized soils developed in 
Wisconsinan glacial till of different textures in northeastern 
Illinois. The textures of calcareous till underlying these four 
soils were: Ringwood, sandy loam; Saybrook, loam; Elliott, 
silty clay loam; and Clarence, clay. Differences in depth of 
root penetration and in available soil moisture in the rooting 



Fertilized 



5 ft. 
Unfertilized 



CISNE 



Fig. 25 Corn root growth in fertil 
ized and unfertilized Cisne soil. 



89 

zone were found to be the main factors responsible for differ- 
ences in long-time average corn yields on these soils. 

Corn and alfalfa exhibited different rooting patterns in 
soils developed in different thicknesses of loess over 
Maquoketa shale in northwestern Illinois. Alfalfa roots pene- 
trated the shale to considerable depths, but corn roots did 
not. 

Depth of wheat rooting ranges widely in different soils and 
is also increased by fertilization. Wheat roots penetrated 
unfertilized and fertilized soils approximately 4 feet and 572 
feet in Muscatine, 272 feet and 372 feet in Cisne, and 2 feet 
and 3 feet in Huey silt loam, which has a claypan subsoil 
containing excess sodium. 

In Flanagan silt loam on the Morrow Plots, Carl W. Guern- 
sey, a student of Fehrenbacher, found that corn roots pene- 
trated to a depth of 6 feet under a corn-oats-clover crop 
rotation. Under continuous corn, the roots penetrated only 4 
feet, except on the MLP (manure, limestone, and phosphate 
treatment) subplot, where they penetrated to 5 feet. The 
better developed root system enables corn on rotation sub- 
plots to use available soil moisture better than corn on con- 
tinuous corn subplots. 

Medium-textured soils derived from stratified outwash 
(Lorenzo, Will, Warsaw, Billett, and Ade) and alluvium (Ware, 
Riley, and Bowdre), which have much coarser (gravel and 
sand) substrata, present barriers to deep root penetration. 
Corn and alfalfa roots can penetrate thin layers of gravel and 
sand that occur fairly high in the soil profile, but can not 
penetrate thick layers of these materials, especially if there is 
a high proportion of gravel. 

Natric soils, commonly termed "slick-spots/' occupy ap- 
proximately 381,000 acres on nearly level uplands in south- 
central and to a limited extent in western Illinois. They occur 
in a humid climate with an average annual rainfall of 40 
inches and a mean annual temperature of 56°F. These loess- 
derived soils occur as irregularly shaped areas, up to 100 acres 
in size, intimately associated with other claypan soils. The 
natric soils have a thin surface horizon and unfavorable 
subsoil, and are difficult to manage. 

These problem soils were first described by Hopkins et al. 
in 1911 in the Clay County soil report. Guy D. Smith showed 



90 

that exchangeable sodium (Na) in the subsoil was the major 
problem in these soils. 

Detailed research was done by Lawrence P. Wilding, 
Fehrenbacher, Odell et al. during the 1960s to determine the 
properties and genesis of Piasa and Huey silt loams, the 
predominant natric soils in Illinois. Compared morphologi- 
cally to associated claypan soils, natric soils have similar 
horizon sequences, but lighter colored surface horizons; thin- 
ner subsurface horizons; less well developed, columnar-pris- 
matic B horizons; and carbonate concretions randomly dis- 
tributed throughout their B horizons. In B horizons, the 
natric soils have higher pH values and greater extractable 
(exchangeable plus water-soluble) Na contents than associ- 
ated soils. Extractable Na content declines with depth below 
the B horizon in natric soils, and is relatively low in the 
underlying Illinoian till paleosol and Pennsylvanian bedrock, 
suggesting that these two underlying materials are not the 
source of Na in natric soils in Illinois. 

Extractable Na in Illinois natric soils originated chiefly 
from the weathering in situ of Na-rich feldspars of the parent 
loess. Lack of evidence of local variability in loess and similar 
weathering of natric and associated soils suggests that differ- 
ential redistribution of soluble products of weathering is 
responsible for extractable Na accumulations in natric soils in 
Illinois. The local distribution of natric soils is usually corre- 
lated with more permeable till zones of the very slowly 
permeable, underlying Illinoian till paleosol. The regional 
distribution of natric soils in this humid area is dependent on 
the integrated effect of total mineral Na content of the parent 
loess, thickness of loess and its degree of mixing with till, and 
intensity of weathering. 

After determining the characteristics and genesis of natric 
soils in Illinois, Fehrenbacher et al. showed that the produc- 
tivity of these soils could be improved by replacement of 
excess extractable Na and its removal by drainage. A pilot 
study with soil columns from the B horizon of Piasa silt loam 
indicated that soil disturbance plus treatment with gypsum 
(calcium sulfate) increased water percolation and Na removal 
from this natric soil. 

These results were confirmed in experiments on Huey silt 
loam at the Newton Agronomy Field, 1964 through 1971. 
The Newton study showed that under the humid, temperate 



91 

climate in south-central Illinois, the high Na content of 
natric horizons can be reduced and corn yields on natric soils 
can be increased greatly by mixing high rates of gypsum (28 
tons per acre) with the soil to a depth of 3 feet and installing 
tile at the 3-foot depth with a 30-foot spacing to transport the 
Na out of the soil profile in the drainage water. With such 
practices, it was estimated that it would take about 13 to 15 
years to reduce extractable Na in the Huey profile to noninju- 
rious levels. Mixing gypsum only in the plow layer or chisel- 
ing gypsum to a depth of 2 feet had no significant effect on 
corn yields. Mixing the soil to the 3-foot depth without 
gypsum resulted in reduced corn yields, very poor soil physi- 
cal condition in the plow layer, and more severe drainage 
problems. 

The performance of some herbicides is influenced signifi- 
cantly by the organic matter content of the soil. A soil color 
chart for estimating the organic matter content of mineral 
soils was developed by John D. Alexander. This chart is 
widely used to select herbicides and application rates that 
will provide adequate weed control and minimize residues. 

Mineralogy 

By the early 1930s it was established that most soil clays 
were crystalline and had definite characteristic arrangements 
of the constituent atoms, rather than being amorphous mate- 
rials. During the next decade, John E. Gieseking and his 
associates studied the effects of substituting large ammonium 
ions and large organic cations on cation exchange, water 
sorption, and the variable spacing of montmorillonite, an 
important clay mineral. 

Alvin H. Beavers et al. found that montmorillonite is the 
predominant clay mineral in Peoria loess in Illinois, whereas 
illite is the principal clay mineral in nearby, and sometimes 
underlying, Wisconsinan glacial till. Except for sandy depos- 
its near the source, typical calcareous loess in Illinois is 10 to 
18 percent clay, 80 to 88 percent silt, and 1 to 3 percent sand. 
The silt and sand came primarily from local flood plains of 
major Pleistocene rivers. Since clay minerals of the loess and 
local till are different, Beavers suggested that the montmoril- 
lonite clay in loess was blown into Illinois by westerly winds 
from central United States. The air-borne clay minerals were 



92 

electrostatically attracted to the larger silt-sized particles that 
were blown from local flood plains, and then the clays and 
silts were deposited together. 

Analyses by John D. Alexander et al. showed that the 
average zirconium content of the coarse silt fraction in cal- 
careous loess was twice as great as in calcareous tills of Wis- 
consinan age in northern Illinois. This difference may be 
used to distinguish loess from till and should also be helpful 
in soil development studies. 

Beavers and I. Stephen, of Rothamsted Experiment Station, 
England, found that opaline silica is common in the A hori- 
zon of Illinois soils as a result of the accumulation of residues 
of plants in which this mineral was formed. Biogenetic opal is 
useful in determining the vegetative history of soils by com- 
paring amounts, shapes, and sizes of opal phytoliths ex- 
tracted from soils with those from plant species known to be 
present during soil development. Robert L. Jones and Beavers 
determined that there was significantly more biogenetic opal 
in soils that developed under long periods of grass vegetation 
than those formed under forest vegetation. 

Jones collaborated with ornithologists of the Illinois Natu- 
ral History Survey in an unusual study of the biogeochemis- 
try of North American geese. They established that the wing 
feathers of geese bear mineral elements reflecting the elemen- 
tal levels of bedrock and soils that produced the forages that 
the geese ate during the growth of feathers. This relationship 
is important in managing waterfowl resources because the 
origin of each bird is potentially determinable by analysis of 
its feathers. Important avian nutritional and physiological 
findings also emerged from this interdisciplinary study. 



15 

Soil Physics 



Moisture relations are an important consideration in man- 
aging soils. In 1938 Russell S. Stauffer measured the infiltra- 
tion capacity of soils in the field at 14 locations in Illinois to 
secure information that would help in developing soil and 
water conservation practices. Three of the soils studied (Tama, 
Muscatine, and Saybrook) had high infiltration capacities. 
Herrick silt loam had a moderately low infiltration capacity. 
The other soils had low infiltration, with Cisne and Huey silt 
loams being the lowest. 

Stauffer et al. measured the runoff, percolate, and leaching 
losses produced by natural precipitation on eight important 
soils in lysimeters 40 inches long and 36 inches in diameter, 
during 1935 to 1951. The soils studied varied widely in 
physical properties and fertility. The average annual precipi- 
tation was 41 inches. Of the total precipitation, an average of 
13 percent ran off and 29 percent percolated through the 
younger soils (Tama, Muscatine, Saybrook, and Elliott); 25 
percent ran off and 14 percent percolated through Herrick; 
and 31 percent ran off and only 6 percent percolated through 
the three most strongly weathered soils (Brooklyn, Cowden, 
and Cisne). Nutrient losses, such as calcium, magnesium, 
sulphur, and nitrogen, tend to increase with increasing 
amounts of percolate. Losses of sodium and potassium in 
leachate were greatest from the most strongly weathered 
soils. 

93 



94 



Stauffer et al. studied the effects of contour farming on soil 
loss, runoff, and crop yields on a 2 percent slope of Flanagan 
silt loam at Urbana, 1941 to 1950. A very high percentage of 
the annual soil losses occurred during May and June. Average 
yields of corn, oats, and soybeans were increased by contour 
farming. 

Plots were also established at the Dixon Springs Agricul- 
tural Center by Leland E. Gard to study runoff and soil losses 
from various lengths of slope (35, 70, 140, and 210 feet) with 
gradients of 5 and 9 percent on Grantsburg silt loam, which 
has a very slowly permeable, fragipan subsoil. The cropping 
system was corn, winter wheat, and lespedeza. Steepness of 
slope was a dominant factor influencing soil loss, which also 
increased with length of slope. Later work by Gard on these 
runoff plots showed that no-till cropping with the associated 
residues on the surface dramatically reduced soil losses. 

Studies such as the above provide the basis for the Univer- 
sal Soil Loss Equation, which is used to select land uses, crops, 
and management practices to control erosion on different 
slopes and soil types under various rainfall patterns. 

Beginning in the 1950s, more emphasis was given to eluci- 
dating the basic physical processes involved in the retention 
and movement of water in the soil. Arnold Klute and his 
associates extended the theory of moisture flow in saturated 
and unsaturated soil and validated the mathematical descrip- 




Fig. 26. Run-off collection apparatus at Dixon Springs Agricultural Center. 



95 

tion of such transport processes by carefully controlled and 
instrumented laboratory experiments. 

In collaboration with the crop physiologists and microme- 
teorologists, the soil physics group initiated work on a more 
holistic study of the physical processes in the transport of 
water in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. This work 
entailed the field measurement of seasonal changes in plant- 
available water in the soil profile, the dynamics of root devel- 
opment, and the flow of water into and through the plant 
and its return to the atmosphere via transpiration. The flux of 
CO z and energy into and through the crop canopy and into 
and from the soil were also measured in the field. 

Such qualitative studies of the movement of water, C0 2 , 
and energy through the soil-plant-atmosphere system and of 
the physiological responses of corn and soybeans to these 
highly dynamic processes provide a conceptual framework 
and a quantitative data base for the current work on crop 
production modeling. They also contributed to such changes 
in cultural practices as row spacing and plant density, which 
have contributed to significant increases in yields of corn and 
soybeans. Similar investigations conducted by University of 
Illinois staff and students in India as part of technical assis- 
tance programs also contributed significantly to increased 
productivity of food crops under rain fed conditions in that 
country. 

Doyle B. Peters (USDA/ARS) collaborated with Klute et al. 
in some of the research concerning moisture movement in 
soils but he also branched out into several other areas. Peters 
and M. B. Russell found that as much as half the water loss 
from corn and soybean fields could be due to evaporation 
from the soil surface. In studying light intensities in various 
populations and spacings of corn, Peters et al. found that 
sufficient energy reached the soil surface to account for the 
observed evaporation. 

Charles W. Boast, who succeeded Klute in 1970, has ex- 
tended the analytical studies of soil moisture and has made 
extensive use of computer simulations in the analysis of the 
highly dynamic flow processes involved in soil profile re- 
charge, drainage, and evaporation of water from soil. Boast's 
theoretical work has included unsaturated water flow simula- 
tion, simultaneous solute and water flow representation, and, 
primarily, the theory of saturated flow in porous media. This 



96 

last area has included calculation of formulae for interpreting 
data from the auger hole and pit methods of determining 
saturated hydraulic conductivity, analysis of the shape of a 
streamline water table near the boundaries of a porous mate- 
rial, and in cooperation with Philippe Baveye, the analysis of 
the shape of zones of zero flow which occur if the relation- 
ship between flow rate and driving force is not proportional. 
Boast's early field work concerning the movement of fertil- 
izer nitrogen through soil and into tile drains was conducted 
in cooperation with L. Touby Kurtz and with staff members 
of Washington University in St. Louis. Boast initially concen- 
trated on the movement of nitrate with soil water, then 
considered the problem of quantifying the partitioning of 
nitrogen loss into denitrification and leaching in cooperation 
with Kurtz and his associates. An outgrowth of this work was 
the development of a low-cost method for estimation of 
evaporation from bare soil at a small spatial scale. Recently, 
Boast has worked with Richard L. Mulvaney on a mathemati- 
cal analysis of the interpretation of 15 N mass-spectrometer 
data. Other field-oriented work of Boast includes cooperation 
with Ivan J. Jansen on strip-mine reclamation research and 
with Walter D. Lembke of the Department of Agricultural 
Engineering on drainage, evaporation, and sub-irrigation. 



16 

Soil Microbiology 



During the first few decades of the Department's history, 
soil microbiology work dealt mainly with nitrogen-fixing 
bacteria. Ogle H. Sears worked primarily with symbiotic nitro- 
gen-fixing bacteria and their relationship to legumes such as 
soybeans, alfalfa, sweet clover, red clover, and lespedeza. He 
found that various strains of birdsfoot trefoil nodule bacteria 
responded differently to kinds and combinations of non- 
nitrogenous fertilizer materials. Inefficient as well as efficient 
strains of nodule bacteria increased in effectiveness for nitro- 
gen fixation as levels of nutrient supply increased. 

Sears et al. found that inoculation of soybeans did not have 
a significant effect on yields on fields where nodulated soy- 
beans had been grown previously. Yields of both inoculated 
and uninoculated soybeans were greater on soils which had 
been treated with limestone, phosphate, and potash than on 
untreated plots. Sears and graduate student Darrel L. Lynch 
discovered that some strains of the bacteria on soybeans, 
Rhizobium japonicum, were incapable of fixing nitrogen. Such 
strains became a major tool in the study of nitrogen fixation 
and the symbiotic relationship. 

Sears et al. found that the Morrow Plots which received 
MLP (manure, limestone, and phosphate) treatment con- 
tained more nodule bacteria than untreated plots. Most bac- 
teria were found on plots where the appropriate host plants 

97 



98 

were grown. But considerable numbers of lespedeza and soy- 
bean nodule bacteria were found, even though the host 
plants had not been grown. These bacteria were attributed to 
application of farm manure containing the organisms. Al- 
though some plots had a pH below 5.8, Azotobacter sps. were 
found in the soil from all plots. 

As increasing amounts of pesticides were used, there arose 
the need to evaluate their effects on non-target species. Mi- 
chael A. Cole has studied the degradation of natural and 
synthetic organic compounds in soil and the impact of pesti- 
cides on soil biochemical processes. Atrazine, widely used for 
weed control in corn, did not affect the number of viable 
bacteria or fungi or soil enzyme levels. Bacterial numbers 
were unaffected by calcium arsenate on Kentucky bluegrass 
turf, but bandane increased the number of bacteria in soil 
and litter. Fungal numbers in soil and litter were unaffected 
by calcium arsenate or bandane. 

Cole found that the degree of inhibition of enzyme synthe- 
sis by lead (Pb) was related to the quantity and the specific 
form of Pb added. Significant inhibitions of amylase-produc- 
ing bacteria and amylase synthesis were observed when 
PbS0 4 , PbCl 2 , and PbS were added to soil, but not when PbO 
was added. 

Work by Frank J. Stevenson and his students and associates 
has greatly increased our understanding of the biological 
nature of nitrogen and organic matter transformations in the 
soil. Their work is discussed in the section on soil chemistry 
and fertility. 



17 

Production Practices 



In order to be most useful, principles established by basic 
research must be incorporated into crop and soil manage- 
ment systems under different soil and climatic conditions. 
This has involved a wide range of applied research by many 
Agronomy staff members to fit together various practices into 
efficient production systems. 

During the past 35 years average corn yields in Illinois have 
more than doubled. Average yields of soybeans, wheat, and 
oats have each increased more than 50 percent, as is shown 
in the following table. 

Table 2. Increases in crop yields from 1952-56 to 1982-86 





1952-1956 


1982-1986 


Percent Increase of 




bu/a 


bu/a 


1982-86 over 1952-56 


Corn 


57.1 


118.8 


108.1 


Soybeans 


23.5 


36.4 


54.9 


Wheat 


30.0 


45.6 


52.0 


Oats 


43.8 


67.6 


54.3 



Soil Management And Tillage 

After World War II, several circumstances converged to 
change crop production practices. Rising land values in- 
creased the cost of growing legume nitrogen on farms. Abun- 
dant commercial nitrogen became available from former 

99 



100 

munitions factories and from the petrochemical industry. 
Economical nitrogen fertilizers opened the way for more 
flexible and intensive cropping systems. New tillage imple- 
ments became available which would leave more trash on the 
surface to promote soil tilth and erosion control. Sigurd W. 
Melsted pointed out that soil organic matter, tilth, and crop 
yields could be maintained or increased more readily with 
adequate soil fertility and reduced tillage than with conven- 
tional cropping systems, including standover legumes. More 
intensive management systems were rapidly adopted by farm- 
ers. 

L. Fred Welch et al. elucidated various aspects of nitrogen 
management in corn production, including spring versus fall 
application, use of nitrification inhibitors to make N less 
mobile in soils, and relationships between time and rate of N 
fertilization, and the N content of drainage water. 

George E. McKibben at Dixon Springs Agricultural Center 
was a leader in research and extension activities showing that 
satisfactory corn yields can be produced and erosion can be 
controlled on strongly sloping soils by zero tillage with suit- 
able planting equipment. Zero tillage has not been widely 
adopted on the gently sloping soils in central and northern 
Illinois, but after Samuel R. Aldrich demonstrated that mini- 
mum tillage was feasible for corn production in Illinois, 
moldboard plowing decreased dramatically. 

Cultural Practices 

Cultural practices have changed significantly as crop varie- 
ties and soil fertility levels have improved. Early planting of 
corn and associated early tasseling under favorable weather 
conditions usually lead to increased yields. Increasing plant- 
ing rates and plant populations increased crop yields. Field 
studies as early as 1950 led to dramatic increases in actual 
field stands, a trend that was reinforced by studies in soil 
physics that removed fears of moisture shortage due to high 
plant populations. Narrower row widths have proven to be 
beneficial for corn and soybeans, and drilling of soybeans has 
gained favor as weed control measures have improved. Weed 
control is discussed more fully in the section on weed sci- 
ence. 



101 

Many studies show that corn yields are slightly greater 
following soybeans. Corn yields decrease when corn follows 
corn; likewise, soybean yields decrease when soybeans follow 
soybeans. Rotation of crops is an important technique for 
controlling disease and pest problems, such as the soybean 
cyst nematode. Crop rotations are used for greater efficiency 
in use of time and equipment. 

Moisture Management 

Water is a principal factor affecting productivity of crops. 
The work of Runge and Odell, which demonstrated the rela- 
tionship of rainfall to yields of corn and soybeans, is de- 
scribed in the section on pedology. Water may be a problem 
because there is either too much or too little. 

Removal of excess water by surface and tile drainage has 
been standard practice for many years. Recently there has 
been increased interest in irrigation on Illinois farms. From 
1973 to 1982, Marlowe D. Thorne worked with others con- 
cerning the use of irrigation, especially on sandy soils, re- 
claimed strip mine soils, and claypan soils in south central 
Illinois, which often have moisture deficiences during mid- 
summer when crop requirements are greatest. On these prob- 
lem soils, selective use of irrigation may be economically 
justified. 

Crop Variety Testing 

New crop varieties, with increased yield potential and resis- 
tance to diseases, etc., are released regularly by plant breeders 
in the public and private sectors. In order to determine where 
existing and new crop varieties are best adapted in the vari- 
ous climatic and soil regions of Illinois, variety tests have 
been conducted annually for corn, soybeans, wheat, oats, 
and forage crops. Results from these crop variety tests have 
been published regularly by the Cooperative Extension Serv- 
ice to help farmers throughout Illinois select varieties which 
are best suited for their conditions. Limited work has also 
been done on new crops which show promise for introduc- 
tion into Illinois agriculture. 



18 

Environmental 
Management 



Agriculture has come to be recognized as a significant 
source of environmental pollution. As a result of the need for 
agricultural expertise on regulatory bodies, two Agronomy 
staff members have been appointed by the Governor of Illi- 
nois to the Illinois Pollution Control Board. Samuel R. Aldrich 
served 1970-1972, and Russell T. Odell, 1973-1975. They 
were the only members with professional training and expe- 
rience in agriculture. The Pollution Control Board establishes 
regulations for controlling pollution of air, water, and noise 
in Illinois and adjudicates alleged cases of pollution. 

Air, water, and noise pollution come from many sources 
including burning fossil fuels, manufacturing, urban concen- 
tration of people and their wastes, soil erosion, and improper 
agricultural practices. All Pollution Control Board members 
are directly concerned with the entire range of pollution 
problems, but Drs. Aldrich and Odell provided special leader- 
ship concerning agricultural problems. 

Under the leadership of Aldrich, the Illinois Pollution 
Control Board held 10 public hearings throughout Illinois 
and reviewed other available evidence (Plant Nutrients, R71- 
15) to determine the status and trends of nitrates and phos- 
phorus in streams; the role of different crop production prac- 
tices, such as the application of fertilizers and animal ma- 



102 



103 

nure, in determining the plant nutrient content of surface 
waters; and the environmental and economic consequences 
of alternative practices. Since phosphorus is held closely by 
soil particles and is not mobile nor lost except by erosion, the 
Board decided that regulations on phosphorus fertilizer 
should not be imposed. After further study and review, the 
Board decided in 1975 that the relationship between nitro- 
gen fertilizer practices on farms and nitrate concentrations in 
streams was not understood well enough to adopt regula- 
tions on nitrogen fertilizer use at that time. They urged that 
further attention should be given to measuring these rela- 
tionships. 

Under the leadership of Odell, the Board developed Live- 
stock Waste Regulations (R72-9) to protect surface and ground 
waters from pollution caused by feedlot wastes from large, 
concentrated animal feeding operations. The Board also de- 
veloped air pollution regulations for Grain Handling (R72- 
18). The objectives of this regulation were to maintain satis- 
factory air quality and eliminate nuisances caused by particu- 
late emissions (dust, chaff, etc.) from grain-handling and 
grain-drying operations. 

Environmental concerns have been an important part of 
our departmental programs for many years. For example, 
transformations and losses of nitrogen through denitrifica- 
tion or leaching have been in the past and remain important 
areas of research to guide proper soil management. More 
recently has come the realization that nitrogen transforma- 
tions are pertinent to issues such as ground water pollution. 
Soil and water losses from sloping land have been studied for 
50 years in order to develop better soil erosion control prac- 
tices. 

During recent years, many exotic materials have been in- 
troduced into plant and soil systems to control weeds, in- 
sects, and diseases. Although the effects of these materials on 
target species are usually known, their effects on non-target 
species and their rates of degradation in soil are often less 
well known. These side-effects are receiving increasing em- 
phasis in our regular research programs. Agronomy staff 
members serve on some EPA panels which re-evaluate pesti- 
cides to determine if registration may be continued or if new 
data are needed. 



104 

In addition, major attention has been given to some spe- 
cific environmental problems during the past 15 years, as is 
described briefly below. 

Use Of Sewage Sludge On Agricultural And 
Disturbed Land 

Digested sewage sludge is an effective source of N and P for 
the fertilization of crops. It also supplies relatively large 
amounts of organic matter. Agricultural use of sewage sludge 
eliminates the high energy costs, potential air pollution, and 
ash disposal problems associated with sludge incineration. 
However, sewage sludge often contains trace elements in 
concentrations that may greatly exceed normal concentra- 
tions in productive soils. 

During a 14-year period, 1968 through 1981, Thomas D. 
Hinesly and his associates worked with the Metropolitan 
Sanitary District of Greater Chicago to determine the useful- 
ness and possible hazards of digested sewage sludge when 
applied to agricultural land. He used three soil types (Blount, 
Elliott, and Plainfield) at the Northeastern Illinois Agronomy 
Research Center near Elwood in Will County and on strip- 
mined land near Canton in Fulton County. Lysimeter studies 
were conducted at Elwood and field plot studies were con- 
ducted at both Elwood and Canton. The research included 
examinations of soils,' drainage water, runoff, and crops from 
lysimeters and field plots treated with sewage sludge. Special 
studies were also conducted to assess the effects of certain 
sludge constituents on poultry and swine that consume plants 
grown on sludge-amended soils. 

Nitrogen and phosphorus were applied to plots at up to 10 
times the amounts needed for optimum corn yields. Organic 
carbon and total N of the surface soil (1-12 inches) were 
enriched, but after 13 years appeared to have reached equilib- 
rium. Concentrations of phosphorus and minor elements 
increased to a depth of 12 inches, but were unchanged below 
that depth regardless of sludge application rates and soil type. 
Concentrations of K, Na, Ca, Mg, and Mn in the soil were 
essentially unaffected by sludge applications. Sludge applica- 
tions improved soil physical properties and never adversely 
affected seed germination, soil microbial populations, nor 
enzyme activity. 



105 




Fig. 27. Lysimeter plots at Elwood. Sewage sludge was applied to the 
plots; water percolating through the soil was collected in containers in the 
basement of the building shown in the center of the picture. 



Concentrations of zinc, cadmium, and copper in runoff 
and drainage water were unaffected or only slightly increased 
by sludge applications. During the last six years of the study, 
no evidence was found that any measured water quality 
parameter was deteriorating with increased years of annual 
sludge applications. 

Concentrations of Cd and Zn increased in corn, soybeans, 
and wheat grown on sludge-amended soils, but decreased 
after sludge applications were ended. Testing of inbred corn 
lines and their progeny demonstrated that the capacity to 
exclude Cd from the aerial parts of plants is an inherited 
characteristic. This result suggests that metal uptake could be 
controlled through plant breeding. 

Poultry feeding studies showed that at the highest level of 
Cd that could be biologically incorporated into corn grain 
and soybeans produced on sludge-amended plots, there were 
no changes in body weight, egg production, or various clini- 
cal parameters that might indicate an effect of enhanced 
levels of dietary Cd on health of the chickens. Since these 
high levels of biologically incorporated Cd in feed did not 
increase Cd levels in egg shells, whites, yolks, muscle tissues, 
or bones, the probability of increasing Cd in human foods to 



106 

harmful levels was thought to be very low. Similar experi- 
ments were conducted with swine that were fed corn grown 
on sludge-amended plots. Cadmium concentrations increased 
in liver and kidney tissues but were unaffected in muscle, 
bone, brain, and lung tissue. 

When sludge is applied at agronomically appropriate rates 
(instead of at the high rates used in these studies), the risk of 
adverse health effects on humans or livestock is probably 
minimal. Application of digested sewage sludge from small, 
non-industrial towns that discharge little or no heavy metals 
would pose fewer hazards than the Chicago sludge used in 
these studies. 

In 1973 Hinesly was appointed to a temporary position in 
the Department of Defense in Washington, DC, to advise 
that Department concerning environmental problems. Dur- 
ing his absence, the sewage sludge project was headed by 
Robert L. Jones. Hinesly resumed leadership when he re- 
turned from the DOD assignment. 

Reclamation Of Surface-Mined Soil 

Illinois has the largest bituminous coal reserve of any state 
in the nation, and about 13 percent of this coal is considered 
strippable. Approximately a quarter of a million acres have 
been surface-mined to date, and this area increases by about 
5,000 acres annually. Guidance is needed as to how to return 
surface-mined land to productive uses. 

Beginning in 1945, the Illinois Agricultural Experiment 
Station conducted limited research on surface-mined land. 
Alten F. Grandt, with some financial support from the Illinois 
Coal Strippers Association, studied the suitability of strip- 
mined spoils (after coal removal) for agronomic use. Alfalfa 
and legume-grass mixtures for forage were found to be well 
adapted to most freshly exposed spoil. Corn and soybeans are 
not adapted to freshly leveled spoil, but can be successfully 
introduced later, especially in rotation with forage legumes. 
Small grains such as wheat, rye, and barley are intermediate 
between forages and row crops in adaptation to leveled, strip- 
mined spoils. 

In 1977, Ivan J. Jansen and his associates began intensive 
research on reclaiming surface-mined land. This research has 



107 



been designed to test certain reclamation practices and iden- 
tify factors that limit the productivity of post-mine soils. The 
prime objective is to learn how to construct a productive soil 
from surface-mined residual materials. Field research plots 
have been established in strip-mined areas in western and 
southern Illinois. Different thicknesses (0-18 inches) of sur- 
face soil were replaced on mining spoil excavated by wheel, 
shovel, or dragline. At some locations, hauled subsoil (B 
horizon) was placed between the replaced surface soil and 
mine spoil. Corn, soybeans, and a grass-legume mixture were 
grown on these plots. Crop yields and rooting, moisture 
relations, and soil properties and development are being 
studied under the different methods of reclamation. 

Results indicated that on newly reclaimed land, average 
yields of corn and soybeans on mine-spoil plots were 82 
percent and 67 percent, respectively, of those on plots where 
topsoil had been replaced. Plots having A horizon replaced 
consistently had better tilth, leading to easier seedbed prepa- 
ration and usually to better stands than mine-spoil plots, but 
these differences had diminished considerably by one to 
three years after soil construction. Early season growth of 
both corn and soybeans the first year after soil construction 
was dramatically better at all sites on replaced topsoil than on 
exposed spoil. That effect also diminished in subsequent 




107 m%^ 




O-o 



SHOVEfrsVoiL* 



© . . • O 



Fig. 28. Field plot constructed to measure yield response to topsoil re- 
placement and thickness of subsoil material over strip mine spoil. (Gray 
area: top soil replaced; clear area: top soil not replaced) 



108 



years and was relatively modest after three years. Crop per- 
formance response to soil horizon replacement varied greatly 
with the character of the natural soil and other materials 
available from the overburden. The overburden at each site 
must be evaluated to determine which of the available mate- 
rials are best for soil construction. No single formula is best 
for all sites. 

Irrigation significantly increased corn yields on newly re- 
claimed mine soils. Very favorable yield responses were ob- 
tained during years of appreciably contrasting weather pat- 
terns. Irrigation application rates commonly used on undis- 
turbed soils may be too high for constructed soils where 
infiltration rates are reduced by soil disruption and compac- 
tion. Topsoil replacement resulted in significant yield in- 
creases with irrigation. Corn grown on newly constructed 
mine soils appeared to be more sensitive to weather variabil- 
ity than that grown on undisturbed soil. Grain yield reduc- 
tions were greatest when high temperature and/or moisture 
stress occurred during anthesis. Water of good quality from 
surface mine lakes can be used on reclaimed land to reduce 
and possibly eliminate corn yield reduction due to drought 
and heat stress. 

Corn root development was studied in four constructed 
soils (topsoil over replaced B horizon, topsoil over dragline 
spoil, replaced B horizon only, and dragline spoil only) at a 
surface mine in western Illinois and in a nearby undisturbed 
soil, Clarksdale silt loam. Depth of corn root penetration was 
65 inches in Clarksdale, 48 inches in A/B, 30 inches in A/ 
spoil, 25 inches in replaced B horizon, and 13 inches in 
graded spoil. The bulk density of replaced B horizon was 1.5 
g/cm 3 , similar to the undisturbed B horizon of Clarksdale. 
The bulk density of the graded spoil was 1.7 g/cm 3 at a depth 
of 22 inches and increased to 1.9 g/cm 3 at 41 inches. 

Soil structure in mine soils was studied in relation to root- 
ing patterns of corn. A new structural term, "fritted/' was 
proposed to designate an artificial structure of rounded aggre- 
gates loosely compressed together, which is unique to con- 
structed soils. Corn rooting was distinctly more profuse where 
fritted structure was present than where the soil material was 
massive and compact. Operations using a mining wheel in 



109 

combination with belt transportation favor formation of the 
most desirable fritted structure, whereas operations using 
only scrapers favor formation of the less desirable massive 
physical condition. 

Further studies of corn and soybean yields on mine soils 
indicate that a relatively small portion of the total yield 
variation was associated with the thickness of soil horizons 
replaced. A much greater portion was associated with year-to- 
year weather effects, which were enhanced by the droughty 
nature of the mine soils. The droughty character of these soils 
appears to be due to poor physical condition, resulting in 
part from compaction during soil construction and conse- 
quent inhibited root system development. It is clear that soil 
physical condition is a much more significant factor in recla- 
mation for row crop production at many sites than is soil 
horizon replacement. 

Feasibility should certainly be a consideration in the devel- 
opment of any design for construction. For soil construction, 
available materials, available material-handling technology, 
and economic implications are crucial considerations. An 
optimum soil reclamation design will need to be site-specific. 

Effects Of Acid Rain On Corn And Soybeans 

Acid rain, a serious environmental concern in northeast- 
ern United States, also occurs in the Midwest as a result of 
gaseous emissions, particularly from coal-burning power 
plants. Field studies were begun by Wayne L. Banwart and his 
associates in 1983 to determine the effects of acid rain on 
corn and soybeans. The crops were planted in plots protected 
from natural rainfall by four movable rain-exclusion shelters, 
each 34 feet by 136 feet. These shelters consisted of plastic- 
covered greenhouses mounted on rails. They were automated 
by use of a rain switch to cover the crops within 60 seconds of 
the first raindrops. The crops were covered only when rain 
was falling or when simulated rain was applied through a 
nozzle system mounted in the shelters. Simulated rain, rang- 
ing in pH from 5.6 (natural rain) down to 3.0, was applied 
twice weekly from the time the crops emerged until harvest. 

Results of this research indicated that acid rain can alter 



110 




Fig. 29. Movable greenhouses used to measure effects of acid rain on 
crops. 



the growth and yield of some crops like soybeans or some 
corn hybrids under conditions of extreme acidity and drought 
stress, but for most years acid rain effects would be minimal. 



19 

Agronomy Field Research 

Centers 



The climate of Illinois varies significantly over its 410 mile 
length from the Wisconsin border to Cairo, and there are 
many different kinds of soil in the state. This diversity of 
environments makes it necessary to have field experimental 
sites in many parts of Illinois to adequately study responses 
of crops to different soils, climates, and management prac- 
tices. 

The oldest continuous experimental area in the United 
States is the Morrow Plots, which were established in 1876 by 
Manley Miles. The Morrow Plots were declared a National 
Historical Landmark by the U. S. Government in 1968. 

Cropping pattern was the only variable on the Morrow 
Plots from 1876 through 1903. The north plot has been 
planted to corn every year since 1876. It is the oldest continu- 
ous corn plot in the world; the 1988 crop was the 113th 
consecutive crop of corn. Corn yields of over 200 bushels per 
acre are being produced on the better treated plots. The 
middle plot was in a two-year rotation of corn-oats until 
1967, when soybeans replaced oats. The south plot originally 
was in a six-year rotation of corn-corn-oats-meadow-meadow- 
meadow, but this was changed in 1901 to a three-year rota- 
tion of corn-oats-clover. In 1953, the south plot rotation was 
changed to corn-oats-alfalfa to reflect current cropping in 
Illinois. 

ill 



112 





Fig. 30. Agronomy/Plant Pathology South Farm showing plots and Assem- 
bly Hall in distance. 



Beginning in 1904, manure (M), limestone (L), and un- 
processed phosphorus (P) were applied on the southern half 
of each plot. In 1955, nitrogen (N), processed phosphorus (P), 
and potassium (K) fertilizers were applied both to previously 
untreated areas and to subplots previously treated with ma- 
nure, limestone, and unprocessed phosphorus. Other changes 
were made beginning in 1967. A new high LNPK treatment, 
based on results of soil tests, was added on subplots previ- 
ously treated with manure, limestone, and unprocessed phos- 
phorus. Details concerning annual crop yields and changes 
in soil nitrogen and organic matter were published in Illinois 
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 775. 

The principal field research location of the Department of 
Agronomy since early in the 20th century is south of the 
campus, referred to earlier as the Agronomy Farm, or the 
Agronomy South Farm. It is now known as the Agronomy/ 
Plant Pathology South Farm. Consisting of approximately 
300 acres suitable for cultivation, plus 100 additional acres in 
buildings, roadways, and service areas, the South Farm is 
capable of supporting both long-term experiments requiring 



113 

some fixed installations and plot work within conventional 
crop rotations. The South Farm is the site of much of the 
Department's staff and graduate student research in soils and 
crops. It also serves as a teaching laboratory where students 
are introduced to soil structure, soil management, plant 
breeding, and other aspects of soil and crop science. 

The first off-campus agronomy experiment field was estab- 
lished near Edgewood in Effingham County in 1896. Its 
mission was to study the effect of green manures and soil 
treatments on light-colored, acid soils. After 1900, additional 
experiment fields were established throughout the state. By 
1924, 53 agronomic experiment fields had been established, 
34 of which were still in full operation. 

The mission of field research facilities was, first, to deter- 
mine whether crops grown on the various soils would re- 
spond to the rotation of crops and to the application of 
limestone, manure, phosphorus, and potassium, and, sec- 
ond, to demonstrate these effects to farmers so they could 
make improvements in their soil and crop management prac- 
tices. The experiment field locations were carefully selected 
to sample the different soils and climatic conditions and to 
make them accessible to as many farmers as possible around 
the state. The objective was to locate the fields so that one 
would be available to any farmer in the state to visit and 
return home the same day. 

Improvements in travel and communications and impor- 
tant developments in agronomic technology prompted a 
major consolidation effort and a transition toward fewer, 
larger, and more sophisticated agronomic research centers, 
beginning during the 1930s. The Dixon Springs Agricultural 
Center, with a large agronomy component, was established 
in Pope County in 1934. The Brownstown Agronomy Re- 
search Center in Fayette County was established in 1937. A 
comprehensive center for Northern Illinois was established 
in DeKalb County in 1948. 

Four new Agronomy Research Center locations have been 
acquired since the late 1950s. The Northeastern Agronomy 
Research Center near Elwood in Will County became avail- 
able as surplus property from the U. S. Department of De- 
fense. For 20 years from 1960 this facility was operated under 
an educational use permit from the federal government. After 



114 




Fig. 31. Brownstown Agronomy Research Center pond constructed in 
1974 to provide water for irrigation studies. 

20 years, title passed to the State of Illinois. As is discussed 
elsewhere, Elwood was the principal site of a major project on 
utilization of municipal waste on agricultural land. The El- 
wood Center was discontinued in 1987. 

A facility near Perry in Pike County, the Orr Research 
Center, was acquired as a result of efforts of the Two Rivers 
Resource and Conservation District. Special legislation intro- 
duced by Sen. Vince Demuzio was enacted in 1977 authoriz- 
ing acquisition and development of the Orr Center. The 
legislation required that substantial funding be raised locally. 

An unusual cooperative arrangement has existed at the Orr 
Center as a result of legislation authorizing John Woods 
Community College, of Quincy, to establish a training facil- 
ity at the Center. The JWCC building includes office space for 
the Orr Center staff, and JWCC students have been employed 
on Orr Center projects. Thus the JWCC presence has pro- 
vided the Orr Center with a pool of student labor and has 
provided students with the valuable experience of working 
on Center projects. 

The Orr Center, like the other agronomy research centers, 
began as a facility for soil and crop research. However, new 
legislation later provided for acquisition of an adjacent tract 
to be used for animal research. Development of the animal 
research facilities occurred in 1987-88, but activation of the 
animal research program has been delayed pending appro- 
priation of operating funds. 



115 



Local efforts were also significant in the acquisition of land 
for the Northwestern Illinois Agronomy Research Center near 
Monmouth in Warren County. In this case, it was necessary 
to develop complex arrangements to dispose of small fields at 
Aledo, Kewanee, and Carthage and apply the proceeds to 
purchase of the larger tract for the Monmouth Center. 

Both the Orr and Monmouth Centers were incorporated 
into the Food For Century III program, which was also a 
significant factor in their acquisition and development. 

A station taken over from the Department of Horticulture 
near Kilbourne in Mason County in 1983 provides a capabil- 
ity for work on sandy soils where irrigation is most likely to 
be a common practice. The Department had previously 
worked at this station since beginning studies of irrigation 
and water management in the mid 1970s; however primary 
responsibility for the station did not come to Agronomy until 
1983. 

The size and missions of these facilities reflected changes 
in agricultural technology and experimental techniques, as 
well as ease of travel and improved communications. How- 
ever, the philosophy of location and mission remained un- 
changed — basic and adaptive research and demonstration 
work on crop production and soil management, located 




Fig. 32. Two persons who were instrumental in obtaining legislative 
authorization of the Orr Center were Fred Bradshaw, a farmer of 
Griggsville, and Sen. Vince Demuzio of Carlinville. 



116 



Monmouth 



University of Illinois 
at Urbana-Champaign 

■ Urbana 
Kilbourne 




DeKaLbN 



Brown stown 



Agronomy 

Research 

Centers 




Dixon 
Springs 



widely enough to sample di- 
verse environments while re- 
taining accessibility to farmers 
in all parts of the state. It was 
not until 1982 that the last 
small experiment field was dis- 
continued. 

In 1988, there were six out- 
lying field research centers 
operated by the Department of 
Agronomy, in addition to fa- 
cilities on the South Farm at 
Urbana. The six outlying field 
research centers were located 
(from north to south) near 
DeKalb, Monmouth, Kil- 
bourne, Perry (Orr), Brown- 
stown, and Dixon Springs (see 
Fig. 33). 

In addition, work has been 
carried on cooperatively with 
Southern Illinois University at 
SIU fields at Carbondale and 
Belleville. Farmer cooperators 
have provided some locations for soybean and other plant 
breeders. The commercial variety test program has also util- 
ized farmer fields as well as research centers. 

The field research system was the brainchild of Dr. Cyril G. 
Hopkins. Since the system's beginning many outstanding 
individuals have been associated with it. They include Freder- 
ick C. Bauer, Alvin L. Lang, Percy E. Johnson, Lawrence B. 
Miller, George E. McKibben (the "father" of zero-tillage), 
Derreld L. Mulvaney, and John W. Pendleton. Others are 
listed Appendix 2. 

Although agronomic science has broadened and deepened 
dramatically in recent years and many of the current fron- 
tiers are at the molecular and cellular levels, these field facili- 
ties are still essential, because new concepts, products, and 
practices in soil and crop management cannot be adopted 
and used until they are evaluated in the field and adapted to 
specific soils and conditions. 



Fig. 33. Locations of Agronomy 
field research facilities as of 1988. 
Some research was also located 
on cooperating farmer fields not 
shown. 



20 

Biometry 



Statistical training and service became available in the 
Agronomy Department when Walter C. Jacob joined the staff 
in 1954. Subsequently, Robert D. Seif, Samuel G. Carmer, and 
William M. Walker joined the faculty to broaden the exper- 
tise and training programs in this area. By offering suitable 
advanced undergraduate and graduate courses, they have 
provided sound statistical training for many students in 
Agronomy and other biological and physical sciences. 

In addition to their own research, members of the statisti- 
cal unit have been especially helpful to other staff members 
and students in planning and reporting their research by 
suggesting appropriate statistical methods to evaluate results. 
They also have made notable contributions to summarizing 
data accumulated over many years from the Experiment 
Fields throughout the state. 

The biometry group enabled the Department to be in the 
forefront of campus units in using centralized mainframe 
computer facilities, which were among the most advanced 
available anywhere. Terminals with direct access to central 
facilities were established in Turner Hall for use by students 
and staff of Agronomy and other departments. For many 
years, statistics courses in agronomy provided the most use- 
ful training in data management in the College of Agricul- 
ture. Courses were cross-listed with other departments and 

117 



118 

drew many students not only from agriculture but from other 
colleges as well. 

As personal computers became widely available, the service 
role of the biometry group declined. Most faculty members 
had their own computers, which had capabilities for most 
applications and had direct on-line access to centralized 
computer facilities. The advent of personal computers may 
also have stimulated other departments to initiate courses in 
statistics which resulted in declining enrollments in statistics 
courses in Agronomy. 



21 

International Agronomy 



Agronomy staff members have a world-wide perspective 
and have been intensively involved in international activities 
throughout the post World War II period. Even a generation 
earlier, Cyril G. Hopkins took an assignment in Greece fol- 
lowing World War I. He became ill while enroute home from 
Greece and was removed from a steamer at Gibraltar, where 
he died, the first of three Department faculty members to die 
while on foreign assignments. The others were Cecil H. 
Farnham and James G. Laverty, who died while on assign- 
ments in India. 

In addition to sharing our technology, foreign experience 
has enriched our domestic research and teaching programs 
and provided first-hand experience for training foreign gradu- 
ate students. Many graduate students came to the Depart- 
ment as a result of our international activities. 

Institution Building 

With USAID support, the University of Illinois embarked 
in 1959 on programs to help develop agricultural universities 
in developing countries. From 1959 to 1973, the University 
helped to start and develop the G. B. Pant University of 
Agriculture and Technology at Pantnagar, Uttar Pradesh, 
India. This has become one of the leading agricultural univer- 
sities in India. It has helped change India from a persistently 

119 



120 



v 'f* 




Fig. 34. Members of the Department were prominent among UIUC faculty 
who assisted in the development of J. Nehru Agricultural University in 
Jabalpur, India. 



food-deficient to a food-exporting nation. Agronomy staff 
members who served extended periods at Pantnagar include 
Earl R. Leng, Marlowe D. Thorne, James G. Laverty, and M. B. 
Russell. 

From 1964 to 1972, the University helped to develop the 
Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University at Jabalpur, Madhya 
Pradesh, India. Several small colleges were unified with this 
University, and its mission was broadened. M. B. Russell and 
Carl N. Hittle each served 3-year periods at Jabalpur. Joseph 
A. Jackobs served a 2-year term and several short-term assign- 
ments there. Cecil H. Farnham was advisor to the manager of 
the research farms at Jabalpur from 1966 until his death in 
July 1968. 

From 1964 to 1973, the University helped to start and 
develop Njala University College in Sierra Leone, West Africa. 
The primary objectives of this institution are to train agricul- 
turists and science teachers and to conduct agricultural re- 
search. Agronomy staff members who served extended peri- 
ods at Njala University College include Russell T. Odell, 
Sigurd W. Melsted, and Roland O. Weibel. 

Two Agronomy staff members each served 2-year periods 
on Midwestern Universities Consortium for International 



121 

Agriculture (MUCIA) contracts in Asia. Joseph A. Jackobs 
helped in the development of Gadjamada University, 
Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 1973-1975. During 1982 to 1984, 
Marlowe D. Thorne assisted in the development of the Insti- 
tute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Nepal. 

Since 1981, the University of Illinois has been helping the 
Zambia Ministry of Agriculture upgrade its research, exten- 
sion, and water development programs, in cooperation with 
Southern Illinois University and the University of Maryland. 

In 1985, the University of Illinois and Southern Illinois 
University embarked on a comprehensive program to im- 
prove and expand the Agricultural University, Northwest 
Frontier Province, Peshawar, Pakistan. This involves incorpo- 
rating into the Agricultural University all of the Provincial 
agricultural research. It also includes reorganization of curric- 
ula, staff training, and improvements in equipment and 
buildings. Odell served several short assignments at Pesha- 
war, serving for a time as acting chief of party. 

In 1986, the University entered into a contract to assist 
Egerton College, Njoro, Kenya, in upgrading its agricultural 
programs. In 1988 Egerton became a university. Several staff 
members from Egerton University enrolled as graduate stu- 
dents at UIUC beginning in 1988. 

International Soybean Program (INTSOY) 

Illinois has been the leader in soybean development and 
production since the 1920s. This activity took on an interna- 
tional dimension in 1967, when an integrated soybean re- 
search project was initiated in India. Joseph A. Jackobs coor- 
dinated this work from 1967 to 1969, and Carl N. Hittle was 
involved in it from 1969 to 1972. 

Beginning in 1973, INTSOY functioned as a distinct unit 
within the College of Agriculture, drawing staff members 
from several departments, including Agronomy. INTSOY was 
actively involved in soybean production and utilization pro- 
grams in developing countries in order to improve human 
nutrition. Agronomy staff members were especially active in 
evaluating soybean varieties for tropical and subtropical cli- 
mates. Earl R. Leng was the first Director of INTSOY and had 
much to do with setting up a cooperative arrangement under 



122 

which several Department members were stationed at the 
University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez for about 10 years. D. 
Keith Whigham, William H. Judy, Harry C. Minor, and Jo- 
seph A. Jackobs provided leadership in the soybean variety 
testing programs. Staff members in the Department of Food 
Science have worked with scientists in selected developing 
countries to identify and develop soyfoods which may be 
prepared in homes or villages. Special soybean development 
programs, with the INTSOY agronomists named below serv- 
ing on long-term assignments, have been conducted in the 
countries listed: 

Puerto Rico — University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez, 1973- 
1983. Soybean breeding and inoculation research by E. 
Hamer Pascal, Quyen H. Nguyen, Luis H. Camacho, R. 
Stewart Smith, W. Chris Stearn, and Robert L. Dunker. 

Peru — Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo Agro-Industrial, 
Lima, 1977-1981. Soybean breeding and production re- 
search by Luis H. Camacho and Thomas M. Fullerton; 
and identification and development of soyfoods. 

Sri Lanka — Government of Sri Lanka, 1975-1981. Devel- 
opment, preparation, and marketing of soyfoods. Carl 
N. Hittle served as Agronomist and Leader of this pro- 
gram, 1976 through 1981. 

Colombia — Centro International de Agricultura Tropical 
(CIAT), Cali, 1984-1986. Soybean breeding by Luis H. 
Camacho. 

Taiwan — Asian Vegetable Research and Development Cen- 
ter (AVRDC). Rhizobium-related soybean research by W. 
Chris Stearn, 1983 - 1985. 

INTSOY production research programs, except for a small 
effort related to crop protection, were discontinued in 1986. 

Training Activities 

Large numbers of students have come from abroad to study 
in the Department's programs. As noted earlier, about 20 
percent of the graduate degrees awarded in the Department 
have been earned by foreign students. Many others have 



123 

come as post-doctoral research associates. The Department 
has also conducted or participated in special non-degree 
programs related to international agriculture over periods of 
many years. 

The International Soils Course began in the 1960s under 
leadership of Edward H. Tyner. This course of about six weeks 
duration consisted of three weeks of intensive instruction on 
campus, followed by a tour to observe soils and soils pro- 
grams in other parts of the United States. In addition to 
Tyner, other leaders included Theodore R. Peck, John D. 
Alexander, and Graduate Assistant Alanah Fitch. Many staff 
members participated as instructors. 

A course in soybean production was sponsored and ad- 
ministered by INTSOY from 1975 to 1984. The instructional 
staff included several members of the Department of Agron- 
omy. 

The Department hosted a Seed Short Course based at Mis- 
sissippi State University for several days each summer, begin- 
ning in 1976. A. W. Burger represented the Department in 
this activity for many years. More recently, Joseph A. Jackobs 
has been the Departmental representative. 

Work By Individuals 

Robert W. Jugenheimer provided leadership in two corn 
improvement projects. From May to November 1950, he 
helped develop a hybrid corn breeding and seed production 
program in Turkey with support from the Economic Coop- 
eration Administration, USA. In 1952-1953, he worked for 
the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 
(FAO), Rome, to develop and coordinate corn improvement 
research and extension programs in 25 European and Medi- 
terranean countries. Following his overseas assignments, Dr. 
Jugenheimer served in the International Office of the College 
of Agriculture and later in the UIUC Office of International 
Affairs. 

In 1951-1952, Russell T. Odell evaluated the agricultural 
potential along a proposed 1,000-mile railroad from the 
Copper Belt, near Broken Hill, Zambia, to Morogoro, Tanza- 
nia. This was a joint American-British project supported by 
Marshall Plan funds, USA. 



124 



George H. Dungan helped improve crop programs at Al- 
lahabad Agricultural Institute, Uttar Pradesh, India, 1953- 
1955. During 1958-1960, Joseph A. Jackobs served as Grass- 
land Specialist at Poona, India on a contract with Kansas 
State University. 

Edward H. Tyner served two assignments in the Philippine 
Islands. In 1958-1959, he investigated the fertility of sub- 
merged soils at the University of The Philippines, Los Banos, 
on a contract with Cornell University. While based at the 
International Rice Research Institute in 1962-1963, Tyner 
investigated the phosphorus status of alluvial soils in south- 
eastern Asia. 

Orland A. Krober, protein chemist in the U. S. Regional 
Soybean Laboratory, served a two-year assignment in India in 
the late 1960s on a project administered through USDA. 

Beginning in 1954 and intermittently thereafter for 20 
years, D. Eugene Alexander and Earl R. Leng worked with 
corn breeders in Yugoslavia to improve maize breeding and 
hybrid seed production in that country. This involved peri- 
odic exchange visits between corn breeders in Yugoslavia and 
the University of Illinois and graduate training for several 
Yugoslavian maize breeders. 

Three Department members — Richard L. Bernard (USDA), 
Jack R. Harlan, and George F. Sprague — were members of the 




Fig. 35. The first group of agronomists from the People's Republic of China 
visited the Department in 1974; many foreign delegations come every 
year. 



125 

first group of agronomists to visit the Peoples Republic of 
China (PRC) after that country and the United States began 
to seek improved relations in 1974. Sponsored by the Com- 
mittee on Scholarly Exchange with the PRC, their month- 
long visit in 1974 provided the first opportunity for Ameri- 
can agronomists to observe agriculture in China since before 
the Communist revolution in 1949. A counterpart group of 
Chinese scientists visited the United States, including our 
Department, at about the same time (Fig. 35). 

In the years since 1974, several Department members have 
visited China under various sponsorships. These inlcude Rich- 
ard H. Hageman, Carl N. Hittle, Theodore Hymowitz, Walter 
O. Scott, Fred W. Slife, Ted R. Peck, Gary E. Pepper, Emerson 
D. Nafziger, and F. William Simmons. L. E. Schrader also 
visited China in 1982, before coming to UIUC. 

Several Agronomy staff members have continued to do 
international work after retirement from the University. Be- 
ginning in 1974, M. B. Russell worked part-time for several 
years as a consultant in soil physics and water management 
at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi- 
Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) near Hyderabad, India. He has also 
served as a consultant on other projects. 

Earl R. Leng worked at the U. S. Agency for International 
Development assisting in management of USAID programs 
from 1975 to 1977 under the Intergovernmental Personnel 
Exchange program. 

Beginning in 1975, Russell T. Odell did short-term consult- 
ing work in Haiti, Zaire, Sudan, Egypt, Pakistan, and Nepal. 

During 1979 and several years thereafter, Leng was Direc- 
tor of the International Sorghum and Millet Program 
(INTSORMIL), headquartered at the University of Nebraska, 
Lincoln, Nebraska. 

From 1982 through 1986, Carl N. Hittle was Leader of the 
Integrated Cereals Project (ICP), Kathmandu, Nepal. Hittle 
has continued short-term consultancies in Pakistan and Ne- 
pal, and in September 1988 began a two-year assignment in 
Sri Lanka as an agronomic advisor at a new research station. 
For that USAID-funded assignment, he is on the staff of 
Oregon State University. 

Since retiring in 1984, Marlowe D. Thorne has continued 
to do part-time international work, primarily in connection 



126 

with the TROPSOILS program led by North Carolina State 
University. 

During 1982-1984, Robert W. Howell served as part-time 
senior advisor for a UNDP-FAO project for developing a Soy- 
bean Research Institute in Heilongjiang Province, China. 
Richard L. Bernard also visited China as an advisor on that 
project. 

In 1988 Emerson D. Nafziger and F. William Simmons 
visited China at the request of the Government of Heilongji- 
ang Province to advise on extension and drainage programs. 

Many Department faculty members have spent up to a year 
on sabbatical leaves at institutions outside the United States, 
or have participated in conferences and seminars of interna- 
tional scope in the United States and other countries. 

Visitors 

The visit in 1974 of the first group of agronomists from the 
People's Republic of China has been mentioned. Many other 
foreign visitors have come to the Department in small groups, 
as individuals, or in sponsored delegations. A great deal of 
staff time has been devoted to meeting with visitors, taking 
them on tours of facilities, and responding to their questions. 
The benefits have been mutual, however, as staff members 
and students learn from these contacts, and frequently our 
hospitality is reciprocated when Department staff members 
travel abroad. 

Other Activities 

In 1975, members of the Department organized and hosted 
at the University of Illinois the first International Maize 
Genetics Conference and the first World Soybean Research 
Conference. 



Appendices 



128 



APPENDIX 1 



Faculty Members, Department of Agronomy, UIUC # 



Name 



From To 



Specialty 



Alexander, Denton Eugene 


1947 


1988 


Corn Breeding 


Alexander, John D. 


1947 


1985 


Pedology 


Aldrich, Samuel R. 


1957 


1980 


Soils Exension, Exp 
Station 


Badger, Carroll J. 


1920 


1956* 


Expt Fields 


Baird, Jack Vernon 


1958 


1960 


Soils Extension 


Banwart, Wayne L 


1975 




Soil Chemistry, Teaching 


Bauer, Frederick Charles 


1911 


1954* 


Experment Fields 


Baveye, Philippe 


1984 


1989 


Soil Physics 


Beavers, Alvin H. 


1950 


1983 


Soil Mineralogy 


Beck, Robert H. 


1979 


1984 


Soils Teaching 


Below, Frederick E. 


1985 




Physiology 


Bernard, Richard Lawson 


1954 




SoybeanBreeding/ Genet/ 
USDA 


Bever, Wayne Melville 


1949 


1971 


USDA Pathology; Head 
PI Pa 


Bicki, Thomas J. 


1984 




Soil Physics Extension 


Boast, Charles W. 


1970 




Soil Physics 


Bolin, Oren E. 


1944 


1945 


Corn Breeding 


Bonnett, Orville Thomas 


1928 


1962* 


Oat Breeding & 
Morphology 


Braids, Olin C. 


1967 


1972 


Soil Chemistry 


Bray, Roger H. 


1923 


1964* 


Soil Chemistry 


Briskin, Donald P. 


1985 




Physiology 


Brown, Charles Myers 


1954 


1989 


Oat Breeding, Asso Dept 
Head 


Bullock, Donald G. 


1988 




Crop Production 


Burger, Ambrose W. 


1953 


1986 


Crops Teaching, Forage 


Burlison,William Leonidas 


1912 


1951* 


Crop Production, Dept 
Head 


Burrill, Thomas. J. 


1888 


1912* 


Botany & Horticulture 


Camacho, Luis H. 


1978 


1986 


INTSOY, Brdg-Peru/UPR/ 
CIAT 



"Staff with rank of assistant professor or higher 

* Deceased 

'Howell was not on faculty 1965-1971; Oschwald was not on faculty 

1973-1979. 
2 Pendleton re-joined faculty as adjunct professor in 1987. 



129 



Carmer, Samuel G. 


1962 




Statistics 


Christiansen, Arden T. 


1970 


1972 


Expt Fields, Brownstown 


Cole, Michael A. 


1974 




Soil Microbiology 


Collier, John 


1912 


Unk. 


No file 


Cooper, Richard L. 


1967 


1977 


Sb Brdg,Dir USRSL/USDA 


Courson, Roger L. 


1983 




Vocational Agriculture 


Crane, Floyd H. 


1921 


1949 


Soil Fertility 


Darmody, Robert G. 


1981 




Pedology 


David, Mark 


1987 




Forest Soils 


DeTurk, Ernest E. 


1919 


1949* 


Soil Chemistry 


deWet, Johannes M. J. 


1967 


1986 


Crop Evolution 


Dudley, John W. 


1965 




Corn Genetics 


Dungan, George Harlan 


1917 


1955* 


Crop Production 


Earley, Earnest B. 


1929 


1975 


Physiology 


Eckhardt, William G. 


1911 


1913* 


Expt Fields/Extension 


Endress, Anton G. 


1986 




Ecology/Nat Hist Surv 


Faix, James J. 


1974 


1981 


Forage Production, DSAC 


Farnham, Cecil Hodgson 


1929 


1968* 


South Farm Mgr,Intl 


Fehrenbacher, Joe B. 


1938 


1982 


Pedology 


Fuelleman, Robert Francis 


1937 


1951* 


Forages 


Fullerton, Thomas Mankin 


1977 


1981 


INTSOY, Crop Prod-Peru 


Gantz, Ralph L. 


1958 


1959 


Weeds Extension 


Gard, Leland E. 


1949 


1973 


Soil Conservation, DSAC 


Gault, F. W. 


1917 


1934* 


Expt Fields/Publications 


Gerdemann, James Wessel 


1948 


1981 


Plant Pathology 


Gieseking, John Eldon 


1927 


1974 


Soil Physical Chemistry 


Gingrich, Joe Ray 


1968 


1973 


Soil Physics 


Graffis, Don W. 


1966 




Forage Extension 


Griffin, Robert A. 


1981 




Soil Chemistry, St Geol 
Surv 


Gustafson, Axel F. 


1905 


1918* 


Soil Survey/Cultivation 


Hackleman, Jay Courtland 


1921 


1956* 


Crops Extension 


Hadley, Henry H. 


1957 


1987 


Soybean Genetics 


Hageman, Richard Harry 


1954 


1984 


Physiology 


Hanson, John B. 


1953 


1985 


Physiology, Head Botany 


Harlan, Jack Rodney 


1966 


1985 


Crop Evolution 


Harper, James E. 


1968 




Soybean Physiology/USDA 


Hassett, John J. 


1970 




Soil Chem, Teaching 


Hepburn, Angus G. 


1985 




Biotechnology 


Hesketh, John D. 


1978 




Physiology, Modeling/ 
USDA 


Hinesly, Thomas D. 


1961 




Soil Amend/Waste 


Hittle, Carl N. 


1953 


1982 


Forage Breeding, Intl 
Soybean 



130 



Hoeft, Robert G. 


1973 




Soils Extension 


Holden, Perry G. 


1896 


1900* 


Dept Head 


Hollinger, Steven E. 


1986 




Climatology/State Water 
Surv 


Holt, Donald A. 


1982 




Physiology, Dept Head, Sta 
Dir 


Hooker, Arthur Lee 


1958 


1980 


Corn Pathology 


Hopkins, Cyril G. 


1894 


1919* 


Dept Head 


Hoskins, E. E. 


1910 


1916* 


Experment Fields 


Howell, Robert Wayne 


1952 


1982 1 


Soybean Phys/USDA, Dept 
Head 


Huck, Morris G. 


1985 




Physiology, Modeling/ 
USDA 


Hunt, Thomas F. 


1881 


1891* 


Agriculturist 


Hymowitz, Theodore 


1967 




Soybean Genet, Crop Evol 


Jackobs, Joseph Alden 


1951 


1986 


Forage Production, 
INTSOY 


Jacob, Walter Casper 


1954 


1964* 


Statistics 


Jansen, Ivan J. 


1974 




Pedology, Mine Reclam 


Johnson, Percy Evert 


1930 


1970 


Brownstown Fid Mgr 


Johnson, Ray E. 


1963 


1968 


Sb Physiol/USDA 


Johnson, Richard R. 


1974 


1980 


Crop Production 


Jones, Robert L. 


1960 




Soil Mineralogy 


Judy, William Howard 


1977 


1981 


INTSOY, Crop Production 


Jugenheimer, Robert W. 


1945 


1973* 


Corn Breeding, Intl 


Kaiser, C. James 


1973 




Forage Production, Dir 
DSAC 


Kapusta, George 


1985 




Weed Science/SIU 


Klute, Arnold 


1953 


1970 


Soil Physics 


Knake, Ellery L. 


1960 




Weed Extension 


Koehler, Benjamin J. 


1924 


1958* 


Corn Pathology 


Koeppe, David E. 


1970 


1981 


Physiology 


Kolb, Frederick L. 


1987 




Tchg, Small Grain Brdg 


Kriz, Alan L. 


1987 




Biotechnology 


Kurtz, Lester Touby 


1938 


1982 


Soil Chemistry 


Lamb, John 


1919 


1929* 


Experment Fields 


Lambert, Robert J. 


1963 




Corn Breeding 


Lang, Alvin L. 


1920 


1965* 


Soils Extension 


Laughnan, John R. 


1963 




Corn Genetics 


Laverty, James G. 


1959 


1963* 


Soil Testing, Intl 


Leng, Earl R. 


1941 


1977 


Corn Breeding, Intl 


Liebl, Rex A. 


1985 




Weed Science 


Linsley, Clyde M. 


1916 


1957* 


Soils Extension 


Love, H. H. 


1906 


Unknown 


Lund, Harvey A. 


1956 


1958* 


Physiol/USDA 



131 



McGlamery, Marshall D. 


1965 




Weed Extension 


McKenzie, Lloyd J. 


1957 


1963 


Soils Extension 


McKibben, George E. 


1946 


1983* 


Soil Fertility, DSAC 


Melsted, Sigurd W. 


1940 


1977 


Soil Chemistry 


Miller, Darrell A. 


1967 




Forages, Teaching Coord 


Miller, Lawrence B. 


1925 


1967* 


Experment Fields 


Miller, Raymond J. 


1965 


1973 


Soil Physical Chemistry 


Millington, Richard J. 


1967 


1971 


Physiology/USDA 


Minor, Harry C. 


1965 


1978 


INTSOY, Crop Prod 


Molina, J. A. E. 


1967 


1970 


Soil Microbiology 


Moore, Kenneth J. 


1983 


1987 


Forage Production 


Mosier, Jeremiah G. 


1903 


1922* 


Soil Survey 


Mulvaney, Richard L. 


1983 




Soil Chemistry 


Nafziger, Emerson D. 


1982 




Crops Extension 


Nelson, Randall L. 


1981 




Soybean Breeding-Gen/ 
USDA 


Nguyen, Quyen H. 


1978 


1980 


INTSOY, Breeding-UPR 


Nicholaides, John J. Ill 


1985 




Intl, Dir Intl Ag 


Nickell, Cecil D. 


1979 




Soybean Breeding 


Norton, Ethan A. 


1920 


1934 


Soil Survey 


Odell, Russell Turner 


1937 


1973 


Pedology, Intl 


Ogren, William L. 


1965 




Photosyn/USDA 


Olson, Kenneth R. 


1983 




Pedology 


Orozco, Emil M. Jr 


1985 




Biotechnology/USDA 


Oschwald, William R. 


1966 


1988 1 


Soils Extension, Extension 
Dir 


Pardee, William D. 


1961 


1966 


Crops Extension 


Paschal, E. Hamer III 


1974 


1978 


INTSOY, Breeding-UPR 


Patterson, Earl B. 


1953 




Corn Genetics 


Peck, Theodore R. 


1963 




Soil Testing 


Pendleton, John W. 


1948 


1971 2 


Crop Production 


Pepper, Gary E. 


1977 




Soybean Extension 


Perrier, Eugene R. 


1971 


1974 


Soil Physics/USDA 


Peters, Doyle B. 


1954 




Soil Physics, Physiology/ 
USDA 


Petolino, Joseph F. 


1987 




Biotechnol/United 
Agri seeds 


Pieper, John J. 


1917 


1939* 


Forage Production 


Plewa, Michael J. 


1985 




Environmental/IES 


Pope, Robert A. 


1977 


1983 


Soils Extension 


Portis, Archie R. 


1978 




Photosyn/USDA 


Purnell, W. Frank 


1942 


1960* 


Soil Conserv Extension 


Ray, Burton W. 


1948 


1980* 


Pedology 


Rayburn, A. Lane 


1988 




Cytogenetics 



132 



Rhoades, Marcus M. 


1951 


1958 


Maize Genetics 


Rinne, Robert William 


1964 




Soybean Physiol/USDA 


Roy, William R. 


1986 




Soil Chemistry/St Geol 
Surv 


Runge, Edward C. A. 


1963 


1973 


Pedology 


Russell, Morell Belote 


1951 


1974 


Soil Phys,Dept Head,Sta 
Dir 


Sabey, Burns R. 


1958 


1969 


Soils Teaching 


Schrader, Lawrence E. 


1985 


1989 


Physiol, Dept Head 


Scott, Walter O'Daniel 


1946 


1981 


Crops Extension 


Sears, Ogle H. 


1920 


1965* 


Soil Microbiology 


Seif, Robert D. 


1956 




Statistics Teaching 


Sherwood, Lloyd V. 


1940 


1947 


Crop Production 


Simmons, F. William 


1987 




Soil & Water Qual 


Slife, Fred W. 


1947 


1985 


Weed Science 


Smith, Guy D. 


1930 


1945* 


Pedology 


Smith, Louie Henrie 


1899 


1940* 


Corn Breeding 


Smith, Raymond S. 


1918 


1948* 


Soil Survey, Soil Phys 


Smith, R. Stewart 


1977 


1979 


INTSOY, Microbiol-UPR 


Snider, Howard J. 


1913 


1952* 


Soil Chemistry 


Sprague, George F. 


1973 


1987 


Corn Breeding/Genetics 


Spurrier, Earl C. 


1956 


1958 


Weed Extension 


Stauffer, Russell S. 


1923 


1956* 


Soil Physics, Conservation 


Steam, W. Chris 


1980 


1985 


INTSOY,Micbio-UPR/ 
AVRDC 


Steffensen, Dale M. 


1983 




Corn Genetics 


Stevenson, Frank J. 


1953 




Soil Biochemistry 


Stoller, Edward W. 


1965 




Weed Physiology/USDA 


Stucki, Joseph W. 


1976 




Soil Physical Chemistry 


Tate, Alfred 


1938 


1950 


SoilConserv Extension 


Teyker, Robert H. 


1985 




Crops Tchg/Crop 
Production 


Thor, Alfred U. 


1920 


1959* 


Soil Testing 


Thorne, Marlowe D. 


1963 


1984 


Soil Phys Extension, Dept 
Head 


Tyner, Edward H. 


1949 


1975* 


Soil Chemistry 


Vanden Heuvel, Richard M. 


1986 




Soil Tchg, Soil Fertility 


Vasilas, Bruce L. 


1981 


1987 


Crop Production 


Vodkin, Lila O. 


1987 




Biotechnology 


Walgenbach, Richard 


1980 


1983 


Forage Production 


Walker, Ernest D. 


1936 


1952* 


Soil Conserv Extension 


Walker, William M. 


1966 


1988 


Stat, Soil Fertility 


Wascher, Herman L. 


1926 


1967* 


Pedology 


Wax, Loyd M. 


1965 




Weed Science/USDA 



133 



Weber, Evelyn J. 


1965 


1987 


Corn Biochemistry/USDA 


Weibel, Roland O. 


1944 


1974* 


Wheat Breeding 


Welch, Louis Fred 


1964 




Soil Fertility 


Whigham, D. Keith 


1973 


1977 


INTSOY, Crop Production 


White, Donald 


1978 




Corn Pathology 


Whiteside, E. P. 


1933 


1947 


Pedology 


Whiting, A. L. 


1912 


1922* 


Soil Biology 


Widholm, Jack M. 


1968 




Biotechnology 


Wilkinson, Henry T. 


1986 




Pathology 


Wilson, Curtis M. 


1959 




Corn Biochemistry/USDA 


Wimer, David C. 


1920 


1961* 


Soils Teaching 


Winters, Eric 


1927 


1938 


Pedology 


Wood worth, Clyde M. 


1920 


1956* 


Corn & Soybean Breeding 


Woolley, Joseph T. 


1957 




Physiology/USDA 



134 



APPENDIX 2 



Field Research Center Personnel 



Name 


From 


To 


Assignment 


Badger, C. J. 


1920 


1956 


Fieldman 


Bauer, Frederick C. 


1911 


1954 


Chief 


Boone, Lester V. 


1956 




Fieldman,Area 
Agron, Coordinator 


Bretzlaff, Grant 


1967 


1970 


Asso Agronomist 


Brink, William H. 


1983 


1987 


Supt. Brownstown 


Chambliss, Carrol 


1970 


1976 


Carthage, Aledo,Kewanee 


Christiansen, Arden T. 


1970 


1972 


Supt. Brownstown,Toledo 


Dillon, John 


1965 


1967 


Area Agron 


Ebelhar, Stephen A. 


1985 




Dixon Springs 


Farnham, Cecil H. 


1929 


1968 


W.IL Fldman, Supt. 
South Farm 


Gault, F. W. 


1917 


1934 


Fieldman 


Gholson, Charles 


1957 


1963 


W.IL Fldman 


Griffith, John 


1948 


1956 


Asst. Soil Expt Fids 


Hoskins, E. E. 


1910 


1916 


Experiment Fields 


Johnson, Percy E. 


1930 


1970 


Fieldman,Area Agron, 
Brownstown 


Lamb, John 


1919 


1929 


Experiment Fields 


Lang, Alvin L. 


1920 


1965 


Fieldman, Chief 


Mainz, Michael J. 


1981 




Supt. Northwest Center 


Marriott, L. F. 


1936 


1941 


Fieldman 


McKibben, George E. 


1946 


1983 


Dixon Springs 


Miller, Lawrence B. 


1925 


1967 


Fieldman 


Millis, Dale E. 


1967 


1975 


S.IL Area Agron, 
Brownstown 


Mulvaney, Derreld L. 


1950 


1983 


N.IL, Dekalb, Elwood, 
Dixon 


Nelson, M. H. 


1939 


1941 


Fieldman 


Oldham, M. Gene 


1964 




W.IL Area Agron,Supt. 
South Farm 


Paul, Lyle E. 


1983 




Supt. Dekalb, Elwood 


Pendleton, John W. 


1963 


1971 


Coordinator 


Raines, Glenn A. 


1977 




Supt. Orr Center 


Sawyer, John E. 


1988 




Supt. Brownstown 


Sipp, Stanley K. 


1983 




Kilbourne 


Snider, Howard J. 


1913 


1952 


Soil Chemist 


Thor, Alfred U. 


1920 


1959 


Fieldman, Soil Test Lab 


Welch, L. Fred 


1971 


1983 


Coordinator 


Zajicek, Frank E. 


1975 


1983 


Supt. Brownstown, Toledo 



135 



APPENDIX 3 



Post Doctoral Research Associates 



Research Associate 



Advisor 



From 



To 



Adams, Clifford 


Rinne 


1978 


1982 


Azam, Farooqe 


Stevenson 


1986 


1987 


Baddeley, Margaret S. 


Hanson 


1965 


1967 


Beevers, Leonard 


Hageman 


1961 


1963 


Begonia, Gregorio B. 


Hesketh 


1985 


1986 


Belanger, Faith C. 


Ogren/Kriz 


1984 




Belknap, William R. 


Portis 


1983 


1984 


Bell, David T. 


Koeppe/R.J.Miller 


1970 


1971 


Bhan, Vishner M. 


Stoller 


1969 


1970 


Bittell, James E. 


Koeppe 


1972 


1973 


Blair, Louis C. 


Widholm 


1985 


1987 


Boag, Stuart 


Portis 


1982 


1982 


Boggess, Samuel F. 


Koeppe 


1975 


1977 


Bose, Salil 


Arntzen 


1977 


1978 


Bowers, Glenn R., Jr. 


Bernard 


1980 


1981 


Bowes, George 


Hageman 


1968 


1973 


Braids, Olin C. 


Stevenson 


1966 


1967 


Breen, Patrick J. 


Hesketh/Peters 


1984 


1984 


Brink, Donald E., Jr. 


deWet 


1981 


1985 


Brooks, Anna 


Portis 


1986 


1988 


Brotherton, Jeffrey E. 


Widholm 


1980 


1985 


Bruce, Willis N. 


Slife 


1979 


1979 


Campbell, William J., Jr. 


Ogren 


1987 




Carmi, Avner 


Hesketh 


1981 


1982 


Carter, Hazo W. 


Kurtz 


1966 


1967 


Chae, Yeh-Moon 


Hassett 


1981 


1981 


Chandra, Satish 


Hymowitz 


1971 


1972 


Cheng, Chao-Nang 




1970 




Chheda, Hemchand R. 


Harlan 


1969 


1969 


Cho, Hyung-Yul 


Slife 


1983 


1986 


Chollet, Raymond 


Ogren 


1972 


1972 


Chourey, Shambhoo F. 


AID sponsorship 


1969 


1970 


Chourey, Prem S. 


Widholm 


1977 


1978 


Chowdhury, Jai B. 


Widholm 


1979 


1980 


Chowdhury, Vijay K. 


Widholm 


1983 


1984 


Christen, Alice A. 


Widholm 


1983 


1985 


Clough, Barry F. 


Millington 


1971 


1973 


Cohen, Charles E. 


deWet 


1979 


1980 


Cohen, Yehezkel 


Hesketh 


1986 


1987 


Costanza, Suzanne 


Hymowitz 


1984 


1986 



136 



Dancer, William S. 


Jansen 


1977 


1982 


Elliott, Marcia D. 


Hymowitz 


1983 


1985 


Erichsen, Alvin W. 


Hadley 


1962 


1963 


Fellers, Urs K. 


Hageman 


1975 


1976 


Fellows, Robert J. 


Boyer 


1974 


1975 


Ferrari, Thomas E. 


Widholm 


1972 


1974 


Foote, Beverly D. 


Howell 


1962 


1962 


Frederick, James R. 


Below 


1988 




Freney, John R. 


Stevenson 


1965 


1966 


Galitz, Donald S. 


Hageman 


1967 


1968 


Gengenbach, Burle G. 


R.J.Miller 


1971 


1973 


Gentzsch, Enrique 


Peck 


1972 


1973 


Giannini, John L. 


Briskin 


1986 


1988 


Gill, Kabal S. 


Peters 


1985 


1985 


Golden, Dadigamuwage C. 


Stucki 


1981 


1982 


Gonzales, Robert A. 


Widholm 


1981 


1984 


Gordon, Anthony J. 


Peters 


1980 


1981 


Granato, Thomas C. 


Banwart 


1987 




Grant, Robert F. 


Hesketh 


1987 


1987 


Gruenewald, Patricia 


Portis 


1983 


1984 


Guan, Yong-quan 


Widholm 


1986 


1987 


Harrison, Robert M. 


Stevenson 


1963 


1965 


Heuer, Bruria 


Portis 


1985 


1986 


Hilu, Khidir 


deWet 


1979 


1981 


Himoe, Albert 


Rinne 


1976 


1976 


Hodges, Thomas K. 


Hanson 


1962 


1963 


Hucklesby, Dereck P. 


Hageman 


1968 


1971 


Hunt, Larry D. 


Ogren 


1977 


1978 


Ingle, John 


Hageman 


1961 


1963 


Joy, Kenneth W. 


Hageman 


1964 


1965 


Kameya, Toshiaki 


Widholm 


1979 


1980 


Kang, Seongmo 


Hymowitz 


1984 


1985 


Keck, Robert W. 


Ogren 


1975 


1978 


Kenigsberg, Paul A. 


Orozco 


1986 


1986 


Kirkpatrick, Bruce L. 


Wax 


1977 


1979 


Kishinami, Isao 


Widholm 


1983 


1985 


Koeppe, David E. 


Hanson 


1968 


1970 


Kolli, Rupa K. 


Hesketh 


1983 


1984 


Komadel, Peter 


Stucki 


1986 


1987 


Kumar, Sateesh P. 


Hymowitz 


1986 


1988 


Kwon, Shin H. 


Bernard 


1976 


1977 



137 



Lahav, Emanuel 


Hageman 


1972 


1973 


Larson, Eric M. 


Portis 


1987 


1988 


Leffler, Harry R. 


Hageman 


1970 


1971 


Lund, Harvey A. 


Hanson 


1955 


1956 


Luxmoore, Robert J. 


Peters 


1969 


1970 


Mae, Tadahiko 


Hageman 


1976 


1977 


Malone, Carl P. 


Koeppe/R.J. Miller 


1972 


1973 


Martin, Barry A. 


Rinne 


1983 


1985 


Matthews, Benjamin F. 


Widholm 


1976 


1979 


Mertz, Stuart M., Jr. 


Arntzen 


1972 


1974 


Miller, Joseph E. 


Koeppe/Hassett 


1973 


1975 


Moreshet, Samuel 


Hesketh 


1985 


1986 


Mulvaney, Charlene S. 


Hageman 


1984 


1986 


Nema, Dwarka P. 


Stoller 


1968 


1969 


Norby, Shong-wan 


Rinne 


1980 


1984 


Ohad, Itzhak 


Peters 


1978 


1978 


Ohmura, Takao 


Hanson/Howell 


1958 


1959 


Overman, Alan R. 


R.J.Miller 


1965 


1969 


Paka, Kumar 


Widholm 


1984 


1984 


Pal, Udai R. 


Hageman 


1974 


1975 


Pearson, John C. 


Hesketh 


1981 


1981 


Plunkett, Anne C. 


Hymowitz 


1984 


1986 


Ranch, Jerome P. 


Widholm 


1979 


1981 


Redborg, Kurt E. 


Hinesly 


1979 


1981 


Ritenour, Gary L. 


Hageman 


1964 


1966 


Rivenbark, William 


Hanson 


1961 


1962 


Roberts, Craig 


Graff is 


1985 


1987 


Root, Robert A. 


R.J.Miller 


1971 


1973 


Russell, Dale W. 


Maran 


1987 




Ryan, Sarah A. 


Harper 


1980 


1981 


Salvucci, Michael 


Ogren 


1983 


1983 


Sano, Yoshio 


deWet 


1981 


1982 


Scholl, Randall L. 


Hageman 


1972 


1983 


Sells, Gary D. 


Koeppe 


1980 


1980 


Sherrard, Joseph H. 


Hageman 


1979 


1983 


Shufeldt, Robert C. 


Stevenson 


1972 


1973 


Silvius, John E. 


Hageman/Peters 


1974 


1976 


Skorupska, Halina 


Hadley/Hymowitz 


1976 


1977 


Slavick, Nelson S. 


Widholm 


1975 


1977 


Sodek, Ladaslav 


Wilson 


1968 


1970 


Somerville, Christopher R. 


Ogren 


1979 


1980 


Songstad, David D. 


Widholm 


1986 


1989 



138 



Southwick, Lloyd M., Jr. 


R.J.Miller 


1971 


1972 


Spalding, Martin H. 


Ogren 


1979 


1982 


Spreitzer, Robert J. 


Ogren 


1979 


1982 


Stovall, Iris K. 


Cole 


1978 


1979 


Streusand, Virginia J. 


Port is 


1985 


1987 


Taylor, Phillip N. 


Hepburn 


1986 


1987 


Varanka, Marcin W. 


Hinesly 


1974 


1975 


Vempati, Rajan K. 


Stucki 


1988 




Vigue, Jerry T. 


Hageman/Peters 


1974 


1975 


Vunsh, Ron 


Widholm 


1981 


1982 


Wang, Juang 


Hesketh 


1983 


1986 


Watrud, Lidia S. 


Koeppe 


1973 


1975 


Wilson, Richard H. 


Hanson 


1967 


1968 


Yazdi-Samadi, Bahman 


Rinne 


1974 


1975 


Yeas, Joseph W. 


Hesketh 


1985 


1987 


Younes, Mohsen A. 


Cooper 


1969 


1969 


Younis, Hassan M. 


Boyer 


1976 


1977 


Zabala, Gracia 


Laughnan 


1986 


1988 


Zablocki, Zdzislaw 


Hinesly 


1974 


1975 


Zehr, Usha 


Vodkin 


1987 


1988 


Zur, Benjamin 


Hesketh 


1986 


1987 



139 



APPENDIX 4 

Cooperating USDA Scientists Housed in Department of 
Agronomy 



Name 



Research Area 



Ableiter, J. Kenneth 
Allington, William M. 
Bartelli, Lindo J. 
Beckett, Jack B. 
Bender, William H. 
Bernard, Richard L.* 
Bever, Wayne M.* 
Cartter, Jackson L. 
Chamberlain, Donald W.* 
Clary, Gerald B. 
Collins, Floyd I. 
Cooper, Richard L.* 
Harper, James E.* 
Hesketh, John D.* 
Heusingfield, David 
Hollowell, Eugene A. 
Howell, Robert W.* 
Huck, Morris G.* 
Johnson, Ray E.* 
Klingebiel, Albert A. 
Krober, Orland A. 
Lund, Harvey A.* 
McAlister, Dean F. 
Millington, Richard J.* 
Mumaw, Calvin 
Nelson, Randall L.* 
Ogren, William L.* 
Orozco, Emil M. Jr.* 
Osier, Robert D. 
Perrier, Eugene R.* 
Peters, Doyle B.* 
Portis, Archie R.* 
Rinne, Robert W.* 
Snelling, Ralph 
Stoller, Edward W.* 
Van Doren, Cornelius A. 
Walker, George O. 
Wax, Loyd M.* 
Weber, Evelyn J.* 
Williams, Leonard F. 
Wilson, Curtis M.* 
Woolley, Joseph T.* 



Soil Classification 

Soybean Pathology 

Soil Science 

Corn Genetics 

Soil Science 

Soybean Genetics 

Cereal Pathology 

Soybean Lab 

Soybean Pathology 

Corn Biochemistry 

Soybean Oil Chemistry 

Soybean Breeding 

Soybean Physiology 

Physiology 

Forages 

Crops 

Soybean Physiology 

Crop Modeling 

Soybean Physiology 

Soil Science 

Soybean Protein Chemistry 

Corn Biochemistry 

Soybean Physiology 

Physiology 

Soybean Breeding 

Soybean Genetics 

Photosynthesis 

Biotechnology 

Soybean Breeding 

Soil Physics 

Soil Physics 

Photosynthesis 

Soybean Physiology 

Corn Insects 

Weed Physiology 

Soil Science 

Soil Science 

Weed Science 

Corn Lipid Biochemistry 

Soybean Breeding 

Corn Protein Biochemistry 

Physiology 



Also held appointments as non-tenured faculty members. 



140 



APPENDIX 5 



State Advisory Committee Members 



Name 



County 



Years 



Rushton, W. 


Grundy 


1951-52 


Newlin, W. A. 


Clark ' 


1951-52 


Huey, J. R. 


Putnam 


1951-52 


Finley, M. R. 


Vermilion 


1951-52 


McLaughlin, W. 


Macon 


1951-54 


Holbert, J. R. 


McLean 


1951-54 


Handrick, E. F. 


St. Clair 


1951-55 


Curtis, Homer 


Jo Daviess 


1952-55 


Trisler, J. L. 


Vermilion 


1952-56 


Armstrong, R. D. 


Warren 


1952-56 


Shuman, P. H. 


Woodford 


1951,1954-57 


Wagner, C.J. 


Saline 


1954-57 


Lazur, H. E. 


Ogle 


1955-58 


Moffett, C. W. 


Macoupin 


1955-58 


Sims, M. E. 


Adams 


1956-59 


Harms, A. G. 


Piatt 


1956-59 


Golden, S. R. 


Clay 


1957-59 


Cook, Willard 


DeKalb 


1958-60 


Beattie, Dewey 


Randolph 


1957-60 


Sieben, A. G. 


Henry 


1958-61 


Trovillion, Paul 


Pope 


1960-61,1962-63 


Scheider, Delbert 


Stephenson 


1960-63 


Crawford, Maxwell 


Iroquois 


1959-62 


Burrus, Martin 


Cass 


1959-62 


Kirk, Dorsey 


Crawford 


1961-64 


Reynolds, Ward 


Knox 


1961-64 


Mountjoy, Joe 


Logan 


1962-65 


Rundquist, John 


Montgomery 


1962-65 


Tison, Lowell 


Saline 


1963-66 


Montavon, Paul* 


DeKalb 


1963-66 


Kermicle, Paul 


Richland 


1964-67 


Morrison, Hugh 


Bureau 


1964-67 


Morton, Carlin* 


Hancock 


1965-68 


Miller, Paul 


Piatt 


1965-68 


Roberts, Tom 


DeKalb 


1966-69 


Jones, Warren* 


Gallatin 


1966-69 


Bergman, Fred* 


Clinton 


1967-70 


Keniston, Earl 


Will 


1967-70 


Copper, Robert 


Mason 


1968-71 


Myers, Ollie* 


McLean 


1968-71 


Dulgar, Robert 


Jasper 


1969-72 


Pearse, Thomas Jr 


LaSalle 


1969-72 


Watson, Stanley A. 


Cook 


1970-73 



141 



Kuehn, Harold* 


Perry 


1970-73 


Grossman, Earl 


McLean 


1971-74 


Stone, Richard P.* 


Sangamon 


1971-74 


Lower, Dean 


Carroll 


1972-75 


Van Horn, Lyle* 


Piatt 


1972-75 


Harber, John 


Henry 


1973-74 


Melton, Harry 


Saline 


1973-76 


Hoffman, Allen 


Grundy 


1974-77 


Koeller, Harry 


Pike 


1974-76 


Ainsworth, R. C. * 


Mason 


1975-77 


Main, Rolland* 


Knox 


1975-78 


Gaines, David 


Marion 


1975-78 


Stewart, J. A.* 


Lake 


1976-79 


Scates, Steve 


Gallatin 


1976-79 


Niewold, Wayne 


Ford 


1977-80 


Lewis, Larry* 


Adams 


1977-80 


Bolen, Carrol* 


Bureau 


1978-81 


Cole, Kendall 


Macoupin 


1978-81 


Grabowski, Ron* 


Perry 


1979-82 


Marxman, Larry 


Effingham 


1979-82 


Diehl, Charles 


Ogle 


1980-83 


Trisler, James 


Vermilion 


1980-83 


Pauli, Arland 


Rock Island 


1980-83 


Briggs, Walter 


Johnson 


1981-84 


Newton, William 


Hancock 


1981-84 


Olson, Ron* 


Will 


1981-84 


Barwick, Steve 


McLean 


1982-85 


Griffith, Lynn* 


Putnam 


1982-85 


Volk, Lee 


Jasper 


1982-85 


Martin, Richard 


Logan 


1983-86 


Smith, Martin 


Champaign 


1983-86 


Sommer, Theodore* 


Tazewell 


1983-86 


Aves, Allan* 


DeKalb 


1984-87 


Killam, Fred 


Morgan 


1984-87 


Korte, Lester 


Johnson 


1984-87 


Burling, Lloyd 


Kankakee 


1985-88 


Larson, David* 


Bureau 


1985-88 


Brim, Charles A. 


McLean 


1985-88 


Ainsworth, Thomas 


Mason 


1986-89 


Heaton, Clifford K.* 


Champaign 


1986-89 


Johnson, Richard R. 


Rock Island 


1986-89 


Webb, Grover 


Pope 


1987-90 


Weaver, Samuel H. 


Cook 


1987-90 


Luth, Gary 


Douglas 


1987-90 


Gordon, Maurice 


Champaign 


1988-91 


Imhoff, William 


McLean 


1988-91 


Schneider, Fred 


Jersey 


1988-91 



Also served as Agronomy representative on College Advisory Committee 



142 



APPENDIX 6 



Master of Science Degrees Awarded by Department of 
Agronomy 



Name* 



Date 



Advisor/Specialty 



** 



Agboola, Akinola 


1964 


Kurtz 


Agrawal, Rameshwar P. 


1961 


Jackobs 


Ahmad, Rashad 


1953 


Bray 


Ainsworth, Ralph C. 


1940 


Woodworth 


Alam, Syed M. 


1950 


Dungan 


Albrecht, William A. 


1915 


Whiting 


Alexander, John D. 


1951 


Gieseking 


Alicante, Marcos M. 


1921 


Burlison 


Allen, Charles B. 


1951 


Dungan 


Allison, David C. 


1957 


Jugenheimer 


Allison, Lowell E. 


1933 


DeTurk 


Alvey, David D. 


1958 


Pendleton 


Amara, Dennis S. 


1974 


Stevenson 


Andersen, Richard H. 


1964 


Odell 


Anderson, Carl A. 


1957 


Kurtz 


Anderson, Gary L. 


1975 


Hageman 


Anderson, Lisa R.(Lisa R. Saladin) 


1985 


Vasilas 


Andronescu, Demetrius I. 


1914 


Crop Breeding 


Antunes, Iraja F. 


1978 


Hadley 


Apel, Gary A. 


1972 


Wilson 


Armon, William J. 


1956 


Kurtz 


Aryeetey, Andrew N. 


1968 


Brown 


Asklund, Clair W. 


1980 


Johnson 


Attiey, Koffi 


1978 


Hadley 


Aubertin, Gerald M. 


1960 


Peters 


Austin, Charles E. 


1951 


Kurtz 


Auyeung, Man T. 


1983 


Hadley 


Ayuk-Takem, Jacob A. 


1971 


Lambert 


Bailey, Larry W. 


1962 


Odell 


Bain, Charles C. 


1947 


Dungan 


Bal, Sharanjit S. 


1960 


Jugenheimer 



*Name listed is the one under which degree was awarded. Other names by 
which individuals are known are given in parenthesis. 

**When known, the advisor's name is listed. If name of advisor is not 
known, the specialty studied is listed. If neither the name of the advisor 
nor the specialty could be determined, this column shows "unknown." 



143 



Ballagh, Thomas M. 


1969 


Runge 


Barnard, Roger L. 


1979 


Jackobs 


Bartz, Joan K. 


1976 


Fehrenbacher 


Barwale, Usha B.(Usha B. Zehr) 


1985 


Widholm 


Barwick, Steve J. 


1972 


Slife 


Bauer, Frederick C. 


1919 


Hopkins 


Bauman, Loyal F. 


1947 


Woodworth 


Baumhardt, Gary R. 


1971 


Welch 


Beaver, James S. 


1978 


Johnson 


Beaver, Linda W. (Linda Wessel) 


1979 


Lambert 


Beckett, Thomas H. 


1986 


Stoller 


Below, Frederick E., Jr. 


1981 


Hageman 


Bennett, Edmond H. 


1942 


Dungan 


Berg, Marlene G. 


1976 


Peck 


Berns, Francis H. 


1970 


D.A.Miller 


Berry, Howard 


1907 


Unknown 


Bertrand, Anson R. 


1949 


Stauffer 


Beyhum, Yusra M. 


1954 


Bray 


Bieritz, Wesley G. 


1959 


Melsted 


Bills, Robert W. 


1932 


Dungan 


Birmingham, Deirdre M. 


1984 


Beck 


Bjarlestam, Sven A. 


1971 


Harlan 


Black, Howard L. 


1982 


Wax 


Boerma, H. Roger 


1970 


Cooper 


Bolen, Carrol D. 


1960 


Pendelton 


Bondarenko, Donald D. 


1955 


Slife 


Bonetti, Luiz P. 


1978 


Hadley 


Boone, Lester V. 


1972 


Welch 


Bosso, N'Guetta 


1966 


Jackobs 


Bowling, Richard E. 


1950 


Gieseking 


Boydston, Rick A. 


1984 


Koeppe 


Bradley, James P. 


1975 


Seif 


Braeuninger, William B. 


1936 


Dungan 


Brandau, Patricia (Patricia Stoller) 


1988 


Nafziger 


Brandenberg, Alvin L. 


1977 


Knake 


Briggs, Robert W. 


1958 


Leng 


Brink, Royal A. 


1921 


Hottes 


Brinkman, Gary S. 


1981 


Judy 


Brock, Willie Z. 


1960 


Lang 


Brokaw, Wilbur C. 


1936 


Dungan 


Broman, Thomas H. 


1980 


Rinne 


Brooks, Ronald L. 


1984 


Slife 


Brown, David S. 


1968 


R.J.Miller 


Brown, James R. 


1957 


Stauffer 


Bruce, Romeo C. 


1962 


Tyner 


Brunson, Arthur M. 


1919 


Unknown 


Bundy, Larry G. 


1967 


Stevenson 


Burkhart, Leonard F. 


1983 


Slife 


Burlison, William L. 


1908 


Hopkins 


Burnham, Mary F. 


1977 


Seif 



144 



Busey, Philip 


1971 


Harlan 


Bushue, Lester J. 


1967 


Fehrenbacher 


Butler, Harold S. 


1972 


Slife 


Butler, Patrick C. 


1955 


Bray 


Cady, Foster B., Jr. 


1956 


Kurtz 


Caldwell, Robert M. 


1981 


Jackobs 


Campbell, William F. 


1957 


Burger 


Cannell, Ann M. 


1986 


Wax 


Carlson, John E. 


1978 


Widholm 


Carlson, Wayne C. 


1968 


Wax 


Carmer, Samuel G. 


1958 


Jackobs 


Carney, Sidney 


1924 


Unknown 


Caro, Roque F. 


1983 


Hadley 


Carter, David O. 


1931 


Burlison-Dungan 


Carter, Jimmy M. 


1967 


Hanson 


Carter, John N. 


1948 


Earley 


Casey, Larry L. 


1969 


Runge 


Catherwood, M. Paul 


1927 


DeTurk 


Cavanah, Jack A. 


1962 


D.E.Alexander 


Centeno, Cesar M. 


1957 


Jackobs 


Center, Orlo 


1910 


Unknown 


Chan, Lop-Ming 


1978 


Johnson 


Chang, Mo 


1941 


Unknown 


Chang, Vun-Din 


1913 


Unknown 


Chapman, Larue 


1935 


Dungan-Hottes 


Chastain, Chris J. 


1982 


Hanson 


Chaudhary, Shiva K. 


1979 


Graffis 


Chavengsaksongkram,Chusak 






(Chusak Chaven) 


1966 


Tyner 


Cheng, Cheng- Yin 


1956 


Melsted 


Cheng, Hwei-Hsien 


1958 


Kurtz 


Cheng, Kuang L. 


1949 


Bray 


Cheng, Shui-Ho 


1983 


Hadley 


Cherry, Joe H. 


1959 


Hageman 


Chodera, Amy J. 


1988 


Briskin 


Cholitkul, Wisit 


1967 


Tyner 


Chu, Margaret P-N 


1971 


Widholm 


Chung, Kil-Woong 


1978 


Bernard 


Clark, David L. 


1979 


Lambert 


Clark, Francis M. 


1926 


Sears 


Clark, John Heriot 


1925 


Unknown 


Clift, Cecil W. 


1943 


DeTurk 


Cline, Frederick W. 


1949 


Burlison 


Cockrum, E. Edwin 


1941 


Dungan-Fuelleman 


Codas, Silvio A. 


1970 


Melsted 


Col lings, Gil heart H. 


1917 


Hopkins 


Conn, Richard L. 


1970 


Slife 


Copper, Robert R. 


1941 


Dungan 


Cornelius, Albert C. 


1955 


Leng 



145 



Courson, Roger L. 


1955 


Earley 


Crafts-Brandner, Stephen J. 


1981 


Harper 


Craig, William R. 


1967 


Runge 


Crain, Albert W. 


1941 


Wood worth - 
Fuelleman 


Crane, Floyd H. 


1926 


DeTurk 


Crane, Fred 


1906 


Unknown 


Croon, Kent A. 


1984 


Slife 


Cropper, James B. 


1969 


Welch 


Crowley, Arthur J. 


1958 


Jugenheimer 


Curtis, Paul E. 


1965 


Hageman 


Curtiss, Charles III 


1985 


Widholm 


Czapar, George F. 


1982 


Slife 


Dahniya, Mohamed T. 


1971 


Jackobs 


Dasilva, Jose G. 


1950 


Sears 


Dass, Narsingh 


1960 


Jugenheimer 


Deweese, William W. 


1985 


Wax 


Dey, Noell S. R. 


1960 


Pendelton 


Dharmasena, Cecil D. 


1980 


Jackobs 


Dicken, D. Dean 


1942 


Unknown 


Dickenson, Donald D. 


1950 


Bonnett 


Dickman, Sherman R. 


1937 


DeTurk 


Dijkerman, Joost C. 


1960 


Odell 


Dilworth, Eldon R. 


1965 


Hittle 


Dixon, Gregg A. 


1979 


Stoller 


Doak, George W. 


1939 


Dungan 


Doolas, George Z. 


1927 


DeTurk 


Doty, Paul C. 


1950 


Lang 


Douglas, Charles F. 


1957 


Pendleton 


Douglas, Clyde L., Jr. 


1966 


Fehrenbacher 


Downing, Eugene E. 


1942 


Burlison-Sherwood 


Duffner, Paul F. 


1974 


D.A.Miller 


Dungan, George H. 


1921 


Hottes 


Dunker, Robert E. 


1986 


Jansen 


Dunn, William R. 


1952 


Dungan 


Dunphy, Edward J. 


1964 


Kurtz 


East, Edward M. 


1904 


Crop Breeding 


Eberle, William M. 


1970 


Oschwald 


Eck, Joseph A. 


1958 


Bray 


Edmondson, John B. 


1966 


Slife 


Edwards, Gerald E. 


1966 


Slife 


Edwards, Ralph J. 


1964 


Leng 


Edwards, William M. 


1962 


Fehrenbacher 


Egli, Dennis B. 


1967 


Pendleton 


Eichelberger, Kevin D. 


1986 


Lambert 


Elmore, Roger W. 


1978 


Jackobs 


Emerson, Benjamin N. 


1978 


Minor 



146 



Emery, Douglas E. 
Englerth, Edward J., Jr. 
Enos, William T. 
Esgar, Ralph W. 
Ezike, Eugene E. 

Fayemi, Abraham A. A. 
Fehrenbacher, Donald J. 
Fehrenbacher, Joe B. 
Feist, William A. 
Fender, Terryl R. 
Fenton, Thomas E. 
Fernandez-Quintanilla, Cesar 
Fields, Robert G. 
Finley, Charles R. 
Finley, Don E. 
Fites, Roger C. 
Fjerstad, Maria C. 
Flock, Mark A. 
Foley, Michael E. 
Follmer, Leon R. 
Fore, Robert E. 
Forgey, William M. 
Fortney, William R. 
Franzen, David W. 
Frazee, Charles J. 
Frazee, Robert W. 
Freeman, Donald B. 
Freeman, Jere E. 
Freeman, Wayne H. 
Frobish, Mark A. 
Fucik, John E. 
Fudge, Joseph F. 
Fuelleman, Justin R. 
Fulcher, Charles E. 
Fulton, John D. 

Galitz, Donald S. 
Galliher, Harold, Jr. 
Gantz, Ralph L. 
Gard, Leland E. 
Gardiner, Michael J. 
Garwood, Douglas L. 
Gascho, Gary J. 
Gates, Robert W. 
Gausman, Harold W. 
Gbani, Anthony B. 
Gealy, David R. 
Geeseman, Gordon E. 



1980 


Woolley-Boast 


1964 


Odell 


1983 


Hesketh 


1987 


Vasilas 


1967 


Hinesly 


1954 


Jackobs 


1980 


Jones 


1940 


R.S.Smith 


1969 


Lambert 


1986 


Hassett 


1960 


Odell 


1977 


Slife 


1954 


Leng 


1952 


Jugenheimer 


1956 


Leng 


1963 


Slife 


1982 


Rinne 


1979 


Fehrenbacher 


1979 


Wax 


1967 


Runge 


1931 


Woodworth 


1974 


D.E.Alexander 


1951 


Woodworth -Koehler 


1976 


Welch 


1964 


Odell 


1972 


Stoller 


1959 


Odell 


1961 


Hadley 


1940 


Woodworth 


1986 


Lambert 


1957 


Gieseking 


1925 


Unknown 


1951 


Dungan 


1955 


Tyner 


1986 


Welch 


1960 


Howell 


1984 


D.E.Alexander 


1956 


Slife 


1929 


DeTurk 


1965 


Odell 


1968 


Lambert 


1965 


Stevenson 


1976 


Slife 


1950 


Fuelleman 


1972 


Melsted 


1980 


Slife 


1946 


Woodworth 



147 



George, Marion C., Jr. 


1947 


Unknown 


Gernhert, Walter 


1909 


Unknown 


Gheddi, Ali M. 


1987 


Lambert 


Gilchrist, David G. 


1965 


Hittle 


Gillette, Margaret A. 






(Margaret Ahrens) 


1980 


Jackobs 


Glaz, Barry S. 


1977 


Harper 


Goddard, Tyrone M. 


1971 


Ray 


Godley, Maurice Q. 


1950 


Stauffer 


Godoy, Paulo 


1949 


Unknown 


Goel, Om A. 


1955 


Bray 


Golden, Herbert H. 


1950 


Unknown 


Gossett, Billy J. 


1959 


Pendleton 


Gossett, Dorsey M. 


1957 


Jackobs 


Graeber, Marvin B. 


1953 


Stauffer 


Graeber, James V. 


1988 


Harper 


Graham, Edwin E. 


1988 


Nafziger 


Granato, Thomas C. 


1984 


Banwart 


Grandt, Alten F. 


1947 


Fuelleman 


Gray, Nancy G. 


1988 


Jones 


Greaves, Joseph 


1908 


Soil Microbiology 


Gregg, David W. 


1974 


Fehrenbacher 


Gretencord, Arthur L. 


1940 


Pieper-Burlison 


Griffith, Donald R. 


1956 


Melsted 


Griffith, William K. 


1952 


Dungan 


Gronewald, John W. 


1976 


Koeppe 


Gruenewald, Patricia J. 






(Patricia G. Ray) 


1980 


Koeppe 


Guernsey, Carl W. 


1966 


Fehrenbacher 


Gummersheimer, Ernst 


1949 


DeTurk-Bray 


Gupta, Ram K. 


1967 


Woolley 


Gupta, Uma S. 


1982 


Lambert 


Gustafson, Axel F. 


1912 


Soils 


Hahn, John 


1947 


Bonnett 


Hahn, Kevin L. 


1986 


Stoller 


Haisma, Tina M. 


1988 


Nafziger 


Hall, George F. 


1961 


Beavers 


Hallbick, Donald C. 


1954 


Beavers 


Halm, Albert T. 


1963 


Kurtz 


Halverson, Gordon M. 


1941 


Woodworth 


Hammand, James W. 


1908 


Unknown 


Hammond, James J. 


1965 


Pendleton 


Hannah, Lawrence H. 


1947 


Burlison 


Hanson, Peter M. 


1984 


Nickell 


Hardan, Adnan 


1960 


Sears 


Hardin, Harold H. 


1950 


Bray-Kurtz 


Hardy, Loren 


1950 


Unknown 


Harland, Marion B. 


1928 


R.S.Smith 


Harold, Gale V. 


1959 


Slife 



148 



Harold, Richard 


1947 


Unknown 


Harris, Richard F. 


1947 


Unknown 


Harris, Thomas S. 


1973 


Ray 


Hartwig, Edgar E. 


1939 


Woodworth 


Hatmaker, Clarence G. 


1942 


Sears 


Hauck, Roland D. 


1952 


Earley 


Hauptmann, Randal M. 


1982 


Widholm 


Haven, William D. 


1950 


Unknown 


Haylett, David 


1923 


Unknown 


He, Xin-Tao 


1986 


Stevenson 


Heathman, Charles E. 


1965 


D.E.Alexander 


Heberer, Jill A. 


1987 


Below 


Heck, Arthur 


1915 


Unknown 


Hein, Mason A. 


1928 


Soil Fertility 


Heltsley, Robert G. 


1953 


Slife 


Hendricks, Herman 


1931 


Unknown 


Hendrickson, Robert T., Jr. 


1974 


Fehrenbacher 


Hensley, Jerry R. 


1970 


D.A.Miller 


Hepperly, Paul R. 


1975 


Brown 


Herrero, Maria P. 


1980 


Johnson 


Hershberger, Merl F. 


1931 


DeTurk 


Hicks, Dale R. 


1966 


Scott 


Hicks, Ronald J. 


1982 


Cole 


Higgs, Roger L. 


1961 


Pendleton 


Hildebrand, David F. 


1980 


Hymowitz 


Hilst, Arvin R. 


1949 


Dungan 


Hinegardner, Gary J. 


1974 


Welch 


Hobgood, Guy 


1923 


Unknown 


Hodge, John W. 


1939 


Woodworth 


Hoelscher, Charles W. 


1953 


Jackobs 


Hoener, Irwin R. 


1937 


DeTurk 


Hoffman, Larry A. 


1971 


Stoller-D.A.Miller 


Holdefer, Robert W. 


1953 


Kurtz 


Holley, James M. 


1949 


Unknown 


Holt, Donald A. 


1956 


Jackobs 


Horneck, Donald A. 


1984 


Pope 


Hoshiarpuri, Pritam S. 


1960 


Jugenheimer 


Houghton, John M. 


1970 


Slife 


Howey, Arden E. 


1978 


Brown 


Hu, Susan (Susan Hsu) 


1968 


Hadley 


Hubbard, Joseph E. 


1951 


Leng 


Huber, William E. 


1951 


Fuelleman 


Huck, Morris G. 


1960 


Hageman 


Hudelson, George W. 


1955 


Jackobs 


Hunter, Jeffrey D. 


1987 


White 


Hurelbrink, Richard L. 


1970 


Fehrenbacher 


Hurst, James C. 


1961 


D.E.Alexander 


Hutchens, Lynn 


1947 


Unknown 



149 



Indorante, Samuel J. 
Ingleman, Milton R. 
Inselberg, Edgar 
Iqbal, Muhammad 
Isaacson, Marion R. 

Jacob, Mark A. 

Jalichan, Damkerng 

Janssen, Willis W. 

Jarudechar, Suebsak 

Jastrow, Julie (Julie J. Dierstein) 

Javier, Emil Q. 

Jefferson, Nephus 

Jellum, Milton D. 

Jeppson, Randall G. 

Johnson, Paul R. 

Johnson, Walter L. 

Johnston, Clarence L. 

Johnston, Taylor J. 

Jones, Carl D. 

Jones, Sadocie 

Jones, Vernon L. 

Jongedyk, Howard A. 

Jordan, Wayne R. 

Judson, Ralph L. 

Jump, Lorin K. 

Jurgens, Stephen K. 

Kamara, Cherrnor S. 

Kelley, Timothy G. 

Kelly, Scott N. 

Kennedy, William E. 

Kermicle, Paul D. 

Kerner, Andrew G., Jr. 

Ketcheson, John W. 

Key, Joe L. 

Kidder, Gerald 

Kimmel, Levett 

Kirby, Charlotte K. (C. Kay Stein) 

Kirkman, Michael A. 

Klages, Karl H. W. 

Klein, Robert R. 

Klemme, Arnold W. 

Klenke, James R. 

Klindworth, Lloyd E. 

Knipmeyer, Jay Warner 

Knox, Ellis G. 

Knuth, Lorenz A. 



1979 


Jansen 


1941 


DeTurk 


1954 


Earley 


1957 


Bray 


1927 


R.S.Smith 


1988 


Vasilas-Pepper 


1962 


Melsted 


1957 


Odell 


1973 


O schwa Id 


1979 


Koeppe 


1964 


Hadley 


1958 


Jackobs 


1958 


Bonnett 


1977 


Johnson 


1957 


Beavers 


1947 


Dungan 


1938 


Bauer 


1965 


Pendleton 


1923 


DeTurk 


1909 


Unknown 


1978 


Jackobs 


1948 


Stauffer 


1962 


Peters 


1956 


Tyner 


1951 


Earley 


1976 


Johnson 


1973 


Runge 


1981 


Jackobs 


1983 


Hageman 


1947 


Dungan 


1955 


Slife 


1988 


D.A.Miller 


1950 


Bray 


1957 


Kurtz 


1964 


Stevenson 


1945 


Unknown 


1979 


Kurtz 


1964 


Stevenson 


1922 


Hottes 


1980 


D.A.Miller 


1932 


DeTurk 


1977 


Lambert 


1967 


Hittle 


1958 


Hageman 


1950 


Gieseking 


1967 


Slife 



150 



Koppatschek, Fritz K. 


1987 


Slife 


Krapac, Ivan G. 


1987 


Griffin 


Kreznor, William R. 


1988 


Olson 


Kurmarohita, Boonkun 


1972 


deWet 


Kurtz, Lester T. 


1940 


DeTurk 


Labanauskas, Kazy C. 






(Chas.K.Labanauskas) 


1953 


Dungan 


Laible, Charles A. 


1959 


Leng 


Lamb, John, Jr. 


1929 


DeTurk 


Lamkey, Kendall R. 


1982 


Dudley 


Lappin, Arthur, Jr. 


1955 


Tyner 


Larson, David T. 


1961 


Aldrich 


Larson, Eric M. 


1982 


Peters 


Laskowske, Thomas V. 


1981 


Welch 


Lawson, Burtis 


1924 


Unknown 


Lawson, Robert K. 


1948 


DeTurk 


Lear, Paul R. 


1984 


Stucki 


Lechtenberg, Barbara A. 


1988 


Nafziger 


Lee, Ceaser A. 


1977 


Kurtz 


Lee, Ching-Kwei 


1946 


Bray 


Leeper, Randall A. 


1972 


Runge 


Leer, Wayne E. 


1923 


Unknown 


Leng, Earl R. 


1946 


Woodworth 


Levings, Charles S., Ill 


1956 


Leng 


Liang, King Y. 


1937 


DeTurk 


Lindblom, Leroy H. 


1958 


Jugenheimer 


Line, Harold E. 


1939 


Pieper 


Liu, Cuo-Tung 


1967 


Hageman 


Liu, Hou-Lee 


1948 


Woodworth 


Lloyd, James L. 


1985 


Wax 


Loomis, John 


1924 


Soil Fertility 


Lorimer, George H. 


1969 


RJ.Miller 


Loux, Mark M. 


1985 


Slife 


Lu, Chieh-Yin 


1976 


Harlan 


Lueschen, William E. 


1966 


Hittle 


Lutz, Earl M. 


1942 


Fuelleman 


Lynch, Darrel L. 


1948 


Sears 


Lyons, Jerome C. 


1948 


DeTurk 


Ma, Ruh-Hwa 


1946 


Woodworth 


Macfarlane, Wallace 


1913 


Hopkins 


Maichele, Max E. 


1959 


Kurtz 


Maier, Robert H. 


1952 


Earley 


Malik, Dalip S. 


1962 


Jackobs 


Malik, Ved B. 


1960 


Jugenheimer 


Malm, Norman R. 


1956 


Hittle 


Mangeot, Brad Louis 


1976 


Slife 


Manshardt, Richard M. 


1976 


Harlan 



151 



Marfori, Ricardo T. 


1942 


DeTurk 


Martin, William C. 


1957 


Bonnett 


Matlock, Robert L. 


1928 


Burlison 


Matulac, Pascual M, 


1956 


Kurtz 


Matthews, John W. 


1941 


Sherwood 


Mayer, Mark E. 


1978 


Johnson 


McConkey, Oswald 


1922 


Unknown 


McCormack, Donald E. 


1961 


Gieseking 


McCoy, Alva 


1917 


Whiting 


McCoy, Major E. 


1953 


Dungan 


McDonnell, Patrick M. 


1958 


Stevenson 


Mcllrath, William O. 


1964 


Earley 


McKenzie, Eli, Jr. 


1971 


Kurtz 


McKibben, George E. 


1941 


Fuelleman 


McKittrick, James E. 


1925 


DeTurk 


McSweeney, Kevin 


1981 


Jansen 


McVickar, John S. 


1939 


R.S.Smith 


Meghji, Moezali R. 


1981 


Dudley 


Melton, Billy A., Jr. 


1956 


Woodworth 


Merrill, Amos 


1908 


Unknown 


Messmer, Mark J. 


1981 


Lambert 


Metzger, Robert J. 


1949 


Woodworth 


Meyer, Jeffrey J. 


1983 


Jansen 


Mies, David W. 


1971 


Hymowitz 


Miflin, Benjamin J. 


1962 


Hageman 


Miller, Darrell A. 


1960 


Hittle 


Miller, Gerald R. 


1957 


Slife 


Miller, Robert J. 


1956 


Earley 


Miller, Robert L. 


1980 


Dudley 


Miner, Timothy G. 


1938 


Bonnett 


Mitchell, Orvall O. 


1938 


Burlison 


Mitchell, Robert H. 


1954 


Stauffer 


Mizell, Herschel E. 


1948 


Unknown 


Mizuno, Shoji 


1985 


Boast 


Moe, Claude 


1953 


Unknown 


Moe, Paul G. 


1954 


Gieseking 


Monroe, Ronald L. 


1971 


D.A.Miller 


Monte, Damares de C. 


1986 


Widholm 


Montgomery, Kenneth W. 


1951 


Dungan 


Montgomery, Kevin T. 


1980 


D.E.Alexander-Hooker 


Moore, Lewis 


1924 


Unknown 


Moorhouse, Llewellyn 


1906 


Unknown 


Moots, Craig K. 


1982 


Nickell 


Moreno-Gonzalez, Jesus F. 


1975 


Dudley 


Mortland, Max M. 


1947 


Gieseking 


Mosluh, Kholil I. 


1962 


Russell 


Motta-Otero, Francisco M. 


1978 


Harper 


Motto, Carlotta K. 


1966 


Melsted-Kurtz 


Motto, Harry L. 


1959 


Melsted 



152 



Mravik, Susan C. 


1986 


Darmody 


Mumm, Lawrence H. 


1938 


Dungan 


Mumm, Robert F. 


1958 


Bonnett 


Mumm, Walter J. 


1928 


Dungan 


Mung, Nguyen V. 


1954 


Leng 


Murphy, Robert E. 


1933 


Unknown 


Murray, William J. 


1967 


Pendleton 


Musgrave, Robert B. 


1938 


Burlison 


Myers, Clyde 


1910 


Unknown 


Myers, Harold E. 


1929 


DeTurk 


Myers, Randy A. 


1985 


Stoller 


Nehmer, Lynette D. 


1982 


Cole 


Nelson, Darrell W. 


1963 


Aldrich 


Nelson, Richard S. 


1982 


Harper 


Nelson, Warren C. 


1952 


Dungan 


Nelson, Werner L. 


1938 


Gieseking 


Nema, Baboolal 


1962 


Jackobs 


Nettleton, Wiley D. 


1958 


Odell 


Newlin, Walter A. 


1940 


Burlison 


Nicholas, Joseph C. 


1974 


Harper 


Nizeyimana, Egide 


1986 


Olson 


Njos, Amor 


1961 


Klute 


Norton, Ethan A. 


1929 


R.S.Smith 


Nubel, Douglas S. 


1986 


Peters 


Oathout, Charles H. 


1925 


Burlison 


Obi, Ignatius N. 


1971 


Lambert 


Ogle, Charles 


1952 


Jugenheimer 


Oldham, Melvin G. 


1965 


Kurtz 


Oldham, William B. 


1917 


Unknown 


Oliver, George R. 


1978 


Fehrenbacher 


Olson, Lawrence C. 


1936 


DeTurk 


Olson, Peter 


1913 


Unknown 


Omueti, John A. I. 


1974 


Jones 


Openshaw, Stephen J. 


1977 


Hadley 


Orf, James H. 


1976 


Hymowitz 


Orfanedes, Michael S. 


1986 


Slife 


Orr, Sherman D. 


1941 


Crop Production 


Ortiz-Monasterio, J. Ivan 


1984 


Jackobs 


Osborn, John 


1922 


Unknown 


Oschwald, William R. 


1952 


Stauffer 


Ou, Hua 


1912 


Unknown 


Oztan, Bahattin 


1966 


Melsted 


Paden, William R. 


1926 


DeTurk-Sears 


Padhi, Umesh C. 


1962 


Odell 


Palmer, George L. 


1969 


Welch 


Palmer, Jane E. (Jane E. Saborio) 


1975 


Widholm 



153 



Palmer, Reid G. 


1965 


Hadley 


Pandya, Bindeshwari P. 


1964 


Leng 


Park, Jay 


1912 


Unknown 


Patel, Jagannath P. 


1962 


Jackobs 


Paulson, Kenneth N. 


1966 


Kurtz 


Payne, Leonard O. 


1949 


Unknown 


Pe, Maung 


1951 


Unknown 


Pearse, Thomas G., Jr. 


1941 


R.S.Smith 


Peek, Joseph W. 


1965 


Pendleton 


Pendleton, John W. 


1951 


Dungan 


Peng, Ke-Ming 


1939 


DeTurk 


Perkins, James M. 


1976 


Lambert 


Peterson, David M. 


1964 


Hageman 


Pettinger, Nicholas A. 


1924 


Crop Production 


Peverly, John H. 


1968 


R.J.Miller 


Pfister, Josephine M. 


1980 


D.E.Alexander 


Phelan, Leo J. 


1970 


Slife 


Phillips, Robert M. 


1959 


Slife 


Phu, Truong D. 


1956 


Kurtz 


Piccolo, Alessandro 


1979 


Stevenson 


Pieper, John J. 


1917 


Crop Production 


Pierce, Theodore, Jr. 


1950 


Gieseking 


Pierre, Joseph J. 


1947 


Fuelleman 


Pomeranke, Gary J. 


1986 


Nickell 


Poneleit, Charles G. 


1964 


D.E.Alexander 


Porter, Paul M. 


1983 


Banwart 


Power, James F. 


1952 


Gieseking 


Prabuddham, Somsri 


1975 


Tyner 


Prensky, Wolf 


1957 


Leng 


Prischmann, Jeffrey A. 


1987 


Hymowitz 


Pritchett, Marion E. 


1967 


Runge 


Probst, James H. 


1971 


Molina 


Pullen, Amedew 


1922 


Unknown 


Punke, Harold H. 


1925 


Sears-DeTurk 


Putman, Bruce 


1985 


Jansen 


Quarles, David B. 


1981 


Judy 


Radford, Richard L., Jr. 


1976 


Hymowitz 


Ramroop, Isaac 


1950 


Crop Production 


Randall, Charles G. 


1947 


Burlison 


Rankin, Elmer E. 


1969 


Aldrich 


Rapp, Marilyn H. 


1987 


Moore 


Ray, Burton W. 


1950 


Gieseking 


Reed, Andrew J. 


1976 


Johnson 


Reed, Robert M. 


1948 


DeTurk 


Reeder, Ruth T. (Ruth T. Hanson) 


1985 


Ogren 


Reginato, Robert J. 


1959 


Klute 



154 



Regnier, Emilie E. (Emilie R. 


Harrison) 1983 


Stoller 


Reich, Vernon H. 


1965 


D.E.Alexander 


Reichert, Gordon L. 


1962 


Earley 


Reifsteck, George R. 


1942 


Sears-DeTurk 


Reimer, Allen H. 


1957 


Odell 


Rhoades, Harlan L. 


1957 


Jackobs 


Rhodes, Edward 


1913 


Unknown 


Rhykerd, Charles L. 


1952 


Dungan 


Richards, Russell F. 


1942 


Burlison 


Rieke, Paul E. 


1958 


Kurtz 


Rode, Marvin W. 


1972 


Bernard 


Roegge, Michael D. 


1988 


Nafziger 


Rosenberg, Laurie A. 


1984 


Rinne 


Ross, William M. 


1949 


Dungan 


Rubaihayo, Elizabeth B. 


1971 


Lambert 


Rubel, Aurora T. 


1970 


Rinne 


Ruby, George B. 


1951 


Unknown 


Rundquist, John F. 


1947 


Dungan 


Runge, Edward C. A. 


1957 


Odell 


Russel, Darrell A. 


1947 


DeTurk 


Rust, Richard H. 


1950 


Stauffer 


Sager, William M. 


1967 


Aldrich 


Sattler, Robert E. 


1957 


Odell 


Savage, Scott M. 


1958 


Stevenson 


Sawyer, John E. 


1985 


Hoeft 


Schaetzel, Thomas T. 


1986 


D.A.Miller 


Schafer, Edwin G. 


1910 


Unknown 


Schertz, David L. 


1971 


D.A.Miller 


Schertz, Keith F. 


1950 


Bonnett 


Schmerbauch, Robert P. 


1957 


Slife 


Schmidt, Larry G. 


1976 


Welch 


Schmitt, Michael A. 


1983 


Hoeft 


Schneider, Edwin O. 


1947 


Earley 


Schoonover, Warren R. 


1916 


Whiting 


Schoper, John B. 


1981 


Lambert 


Schult, Howard 


1949 


Unknown 


Schultz, Ernest 


1916 


Unknown 


Schumann, Edward R. 


1956 


Tyner 


Schweitzer, Lee E. 


1978 


Harper 


Schweizer, Edward E. 


1958 


Jackobs 


Scott, John T., Jr. 


1952 


Dungan 


Scott, Robert A. 


1923 


DeTurk 


Scott, W. S. 


1923 


Unknown 


Scott, Walter O. 


1949 


Burlison 


Scott, Winfield H. 


1918 


Unknown 


Senko, David L. 


1957 


Bray 



155 



Shaffer, Ruth D. 


1984 


Stoller 


Shaner, Dale L. 


1940 


Dungan-Burlison 


Sherwood, Lloyd V. 


1932 


Hottes 


Sherwood, Paul K. 


1949 


Dungan 


Shier, Marion 


1985 


D.A.Miller 


Shrivastava, Prem S. 


1961 


Hittle 


Shulman, Milton D. 


1951 


Sears 


Shuman, Charles B. 


1929 


Burlison 


Sikkhamondhol, Banchony 


1972 


Unknown 


Silvela-Sangro, Luis 


1965 


D.E.Alexander 


Siminoff, Paul 


1949 


Sears 


Simonson, Clifford H. 


1942 


R.S.Smith 


Sinclair, Harold R., Jr. 


1961 


Beavers 


Singh, Arjun 


1969 


Unknown 


Singh, Bir B. 


1965 


Hadley 


Singh, Chhidda 


1965 


Leng 


Singh, Laxman 


1957 


Weibel 


Singh, Mahendra 


1973 


Widholm 


Singh, Uma S. 


1958 


Burger 


Sinha, Ram D. 


1961 


Jackobs 


Slife, Fred W. 


1949 


Dungan 


Smiley, Arthur G. 


1951 


Sears 


Smiley, Everett J. 


1951 


Leng 


Smith, Amy J. 


1986 


Rinne 


Smith, Clyde F. 


1964 


Hageman 


Smith, Harold M. 


1948 


Dungan 


Smith, Howard V. 


1924 


Unknown 


Smith, James R. 


1984 


Nelson 


Smith, Richard R. 


1963 


Jackobs 


Smith, Roger K. 


1972 


D.A.Miller 


Snarski, Raymond R. 


1980 


Fehrenbacher 


Snelling, William L. 


1941 


Woodworth 


Snider, Howard J. 


1921 


DeTurk 


Sommerville, Duane N. 


1970 


Wax 


Sonnemaker, Earl H. 


1960 


D.E.Alexander 


Sopher, Charles D. 


1963 


Odell 


Sparks, Max E. 


1953 


Woodworth 


Specht, James E. 


1971 


D.E.Alexander 


Sriplakich, Chiraporn P. 


1969 


Slife 


Stahlhut, Roy W. 


1982 


Hymowitz 


Stark, Robert 


1924 


Unknown 


Stauffer, Russell S. 


1923 


R.S.Smith 


Stearnes, Hollis D. 


1949 


Unknown 


Steinkamp, James F. 


1959 


Gieseking 


Stephenson, Roscoe 


1917 


Soil Fertility 


Stinson, Charles H. 


1941 


DeTurk 


Stovall, Iris K. 


1975 


Cole 


Stubblefield, John R. 


1950 


Fuelleman 



156 



Sunarlim,Novianti 






(Novianti S.Wiradarya) 


1981 


Judy 


Swan, James B. 


1959 


Russell 


Syltie, Paul W. 


1971 


Melsted 


Tandon, Hari L. S. 


1965 


Kurtz 


Tascher, Wendell R. 


1927 


Unknown 


Tedia, Meghdatt 


1973 


Jackobs 


Templeton, William C, Jr. 


1939 


Woodworth 


Thomas, David W. 


1978 


Jansen 


Thompson, Pamela J. 


1985 


Jansen 


Thurn, Edward A. 


1953 


Stauffer 


Tisselli, Otavio 


1979 


Hymowitz 


Tomlinson, Roy H. 




Unknown 


Torii, Kazuo 


1986 


Vasilas 


Troyer, Alvah Forrest, Jr. 


1956 


Jugenheimer 


Tull, Robert 


1957 


Unknown 


Turner, Russell C, Jr. 


1960 


Kurtz 


Unfer, Wendell W. 


1941 


Bonnett 


Vajragupta, Ying 


1961 


Melsted 


Van Alstine, Ernest 


1917 


Hopkins 


Van Doren, Cornelius A. 


1929 


Bonnett 


Varsa, Edward C. 


1965 


Melsted 


Vaughan, Byron 


1985 


Welch 


Vaughan, Duncan A. 


1983 


Hymowitz 


Veale, Paul T. 


1948 


Gieseking 


Verna, Sardar 


1958 


Slife 


Vibulsukh, Nonglak 


1975 


Peck 


Vijarnsorn, Chamchan 


1972 


Tyner 


Vijarnsorn, Pi soot 


1972 


Fehrenbacher 


Vineyard, Marvin L. 


1951 


Leng 


Wachtel, Larry L. 


1969 


Slife 


Wahua, Timothy A. 


1974 


D.A.Miller 


Walker, George O. 


1959 


Odell 


Walker, George W. 


1917 


Stewart 


Walker, Jackson T. 


1983 


Pepper 


Walworth, Edward H. 


1917 


Unknown 


Wang, Hsu-Shien 


1961 


Melsted 


Warfield, Thomas C., Jr. 


1958 


D.E.Alexander 


Wargel, Charles J. 


1959 


Howell 


Wascher, Herman L. 


1934 


R.S.Smith 


Watkins, Phillip W. 


1959 


Hittle 


Weatherby, Kent E. 


1988 


D.A.Miller 


Webb, Burleight 


1947 


Unknown 


Wei, Lun-Shin 


1955 


Bray 



157 



Welbourn, John P. 

Welikala, Nihal 

Wemsman, Earl A. 

White, George A. 

White, Jonathon 

Wichneider, Edwin 

Widrlechner, Mark P. 

Wiebe, Roger A. 

Wiedman, Steven J. 

Wilcox, Wesley C. 

Wilkinson, Cecil 

Willard, Charles J. 

Willavize, Susan A. 

Willhite, Forrest M. 

Williams, Mark E. 

Williams, Robert E. 

Willis, James R. 

Willman, Mark R. 

Willmot, David B. 

Wilmarth, Charles E. 

Wilson, Harold K. 

Wilson, Richard F. 

Windhorn, Roger D. 

Winter, Floyd L. 

Winter, Steven R. 

Winters, Eric, Jr. 

Wood, Lynne K. 

Wood, Richard L. 

Wrede, Kenneth C. 

Wright, Nathan A. 

Wu, Shenchuan 

Wulff, Donald D. 

Wyss, Colleen W. (Colleen Winkels) 

Ye, Jingsong 

Zajicek, Frank E. 
Zehr, Brent E. 
Zierath, David L. 
Zieserl, John F., Jr. 
Zimmerman, Gifford S. 



1928 


DeTurk 


1986 


Peck 


1960 


Jugenheimer 


1958 


Jackobs 


1912 


Unknown 


1947 


Unknown 


1980 


Harlan 


1971 


Jackobs 


1966 


Slife 


1951 


Bonnett 


1921 


Unknown 


1917 


Soils 


1978 


Carmer 


1930 


DeTurk 


1983 


Lambert 


1941 


Woodworth 


1950 


Dungan 


1984 


Lambert 


1986 


Nickell 


1943 


Bonnett 


1925 


Burlison 


1973 


Rinne 


1977 


Fehrenbacher 


1924 


Woodworth 


1968 


Pendleton 


1930 


R.S.Smith 


1938 


Buckholtz 


1941 


Bauer 


1966 


Brown 


1982 


Welch 


1986 


Harper 


1971 


Welch 


1986 


Below 


1986 


Widholm 


1974 


D.A.Miller 


1986 


Widholm 


1981 


Hassett 


1962 


Hageman 


1972 


D.A.Miller 



158 



APPENDIX 7 



Doctor of Philosophy Degrees Awarded by Department of 
Agronomy 



Name* 



Date 



Advisor/Specialty' 



Abemathy, John R. 


1972 


Wax 


Acton, Donald F. 


1971 


Fehrenbacher 


Adams, Clifford A. 


1969 


Rinne 


Adams, Russell S., Jr. 


1962 


Stevenson 


Agrawal, Rameshwar P. 


1970 


Jackobs 


Ahrens, William H. 


1982 


Stoller 


Alberts, Hugo W. 


1926 


Burlison 


Albrecht, Bruno 


1986 


Dudley 


Albrecht, William A. 


1919 


Whiting 


Alcordo, Isabelo S. 


1968 


Tyner 


Alexander, Denton E. 


1950 


Jugenheimer 


Alicante, Marcos M. 


1923 


Whiting 


Alim, Abdul 


1949 


Bonnett 


Allen, Arthur L. 


1971 


Stevenson 


Allison, Lowell E. 


1942 


DeTurk 


Anderson, Warren L. 


1978 


Stucki 


Anderson, John R., Jr. 


1978 


Harper-Hageman 


Andrews, Olin N., Jr. 


1967 


Jackobs 


Andronescu, Demetrius I. 


1915 


L.H.Smith 


Appleman, Milo D. 


1940 


Sears 


Aston, Alan R. 


1969 


Peters 


Auyeung, Man T. 


1987 


Nelson 


Balba, Monem A. 


1956 


Bray 


Banerjee, Dilip K. 


1952 


Bray 


Bartelli, Undo J. 


1958 


Odell 


Barwale, Usha B. (Usha B. Zehr) 


1988 


Widholm 


Bauer, Marvin E. 


1970 


Pendleton 


Bauman, Loyal F. 


1950 


Wood worth 


Bauwin, George R. 


1953 


Tyner 


Baxter, Robert 


1967 


Hanson 



*Name listed in the one under which the degree was awarded. Other 
names by which individuals are known are in parenthesis. 

**When known, the advisor's name is listed. If advisor is not known, the 
specialty studied is listed. If neither the name of the advisor nor the 
specialty studied could be determined, this column shows "unknown." 



159 



Beaver, James S. 


1980 


Johnson 


Beaver, Linda(Linda Wessel) 


1981 


Lambert 


Bedigian, Dorothea 


1984 


Harlan 


Below, Frederick E., Jr. 


1983 


Hageman 


Bernardo, Rex N. 


1988 


Dudley 


Beuerlein, James E. 


1970 


Pendleton 


Bhatnagar, Parmanand S. 


1960 


Jugenheimer 


Blair, Louis C. 


1983 


Slife 


Bloomberg, James R. 


1978 


Wax 


Boerma, Henry Roger 


1973 


Cooper 


Bohannon, Robert A. 


1957 


Kurtz 


Bomke, Arthur A. 


1972 


Welch 


Bonnett, Orville T. 


1933 


Woodworth 


Bottrill, Dean E. 


1965 


Hanson 


Boydston, Rick A. 


1985 


Slife 


Bray, Roger H. 


1940 


DeTurk 


Breland, Herman L. 


1952 


Bray 


Brewer, Philip E. 


1978 


Slife 


Brown, David S. 


1972 


RJ.Miller 


Bruce, R. Russell 


1956 


Russell 


Brun, Eduardo L. 


1988 


Dudley 


Buckardt, Henry L. 


1932 


Burlison 


Burlison, William L. 


1915 


Hopkins-Whiting 


Burroughs, Frank G. 


1983 


Slife 


Butler, John H. A. 


1966 


Stevenson 


Cain, Paul S. 


1966 


Slife 


Caldwell, Robert M. 


1984 


Jackobs 


Campos, Mario S. 


1977 


Lambert 


Cardenas-Gonzalez, Juan 


1966 


Slife 


Carmer, Samuel G. 


1961 


Jackobs 


Caro, Roque F. 


1984 


Hadley 


Carter, Clarence E. 


1931 


Burlison 


Carter, Hazo W. 


1952 


Dungan 


Carter, John N. 


1950 


Earley 


Cescas, Michel P. 


1968 


Tyner 


Chambliss, Carrol G. 


1969 


Hittle 


Chaudhary, Muhammad H. 


1972 


Jackobs 


Chavengsaksongkram,Chusak 


1972 


Tyner 


(Chusak Chaven) 






Cheng, Chao-Nang 


1969 


Stevenson 


Cheng, Cheng- Yin 


1960 


Melsted 


Cheng, Hwei-Hsien 


1961 


Kurtz 


Cheng, Kuang L. 


1951 


Bray 


Cheng, Shui-Ho 


1984 


Hadley 


Chernicky, Jon P. 


1985 


Slife 


Cherry, Joe H. 


1961 


Hageman 


Cho, Hyung-Yul 


1983 


Slife 



160 



Choudhri, Mohammad B. 


1957 


Stevenson 


Chrispeels, Maarten J. 


1965 


Hanson 


Cisar, Gordon L. 


1980 


Brown 


Clark, Roger W. 


1971 


Hymowitz 


Coble, Harold D. 


1970 


Slife 


Colliver, Gary W. 


1969 


Welch 


Cooper, George S. 


1953 


Dungan 


Cornelius, Paul L. 


1972 


Dudley 


Courson, Roger L. 


1965 


Slife 


Crafts-Brandner, Stephen J. 


1983 


Harper 


Cripps, Reed W. 


1987 


Welch 


Croy, Lavoy I. 


1967 


Hageman 


Curtis, Paul E. 


1968 


Hageman 


Dalling, Michael J. 


1972 


Hageman 


Danielson, Robert E. 


1955 


Russell 


Davis, Robert J., Jr. 


1957 


Sears 


Dean, John V. 


1988 


Harper 


Debacker, Louis N. A. 


1965 


Klute 


Deckard, Edward L. 


1970 


Hageman 


Deshpande, Sharadchandra B. 


1969 


Fehrenbacher 


DeTurk, Ernest E. 


1919 


Stewart 


Dexter, Alan G. 


1969 


Slife 


Dhariwal, Amand Pal 


1958 


Stevenson 


Dibb, David W. 


1974 


Welch 


Dickman, Sherman R. 


1940 


DeTurk 


Dillon, John E. 


1972 


Brown 


Dixon, Gregg A. 


1980 


Stoller 


Do Valle, Cacilda B. 


1986 


D.A.Miller 


Domingo, Wayne E. 


1942 


Woodworth 


Dubey, Bhagwati P. 


1970 


D.A.Miller 


Dubey, Shambhu N. 


1969 


Brown 


Duke, William B. 


1967 


Slife 


Dumford, Stephen W. 


1968 


R.J.Miller 


Dunand, Richard T. 


1980 


Hageman 


Durst, Charles E. 


1924 


Plant Breeding 


Earley, Ernest B. 


1941 


DeTurk 


East, Edward M. 


1907 


Hopkins 


Ebelhar, M. Wayne 


1981 


Welch 


Eberle, William M. 


1973 


Oschwald 


Edmondson, John B. 


1969 


Slife 


Edwards, Ralph J. 


1966 


Hadley 


Egli, Dennis B. 


1969 


Pendleton 


Eilrich, Gary L. 


1968 


Hageman 


Elmore, Carroll D. 


1970 


D.E.Alexander 


Elmore, Roger W. 


1981 


Jackobs 


Eisner, John E. 


1969 


Hageman 



161 



Engle, Liwayway M. 


1973 


Harlan 


Ensminger, Leonard E. 


1940 


Gieseking 


Erickson, Anton E. 


1948 


Gieseking 


Fawcett, Richard S. 


1974 


Slife 


Feldman, Sheldon 


1952 


Dungan 


Fernandez, Nicanor C. 


1967 


Beavers 


Fernandez-Quintanilla, Cesar 


1979 


Slife 


Fickle, James S. 


1973 


Slife 


Fitch, Alanah 


1981 


Stevenson 


Fites, Roger C. 


1965 


Hanson 


Fletcher, Harry F. 


1961 


Kurtz 


Foley, Michael E. 


1982 


Wax 


Follmer, Leon R. 


1970 


Runge 


Foote, Beverly D. 


1961 


Hanson 


Foote, Lawrence E. 


1965 


Jackobs 


Fore, Robert E. 


1935 


Wood worth 


Frazee, Charles J. 


1969 


Fehrenbacher 


Frederick, James R. 


1987 


Woolley 


Freeman, Jere E. 


1962 


Hadley 


Freeman, Wayne H. 


1945 


Woodworth 


Fritz, John O. 


1988 


Moore 


Fulcher, Charles E. 


1961 


Tyner 


Galitz, Donald S. 


1961 


Howell 


Gantz, Ralph L. 


1958 


Slife 


Gast, Roger E. 


1988 


Slife 


Gausman, Harold W. 


1952 


Dungan 


Gealy, David R. 


1981 


Slife 


Gengenbach, Burle G. 


1971 


Dudley 


Gernhert, Walter B. 


1911 


Unknown 


Ghorashy, Seyed R. 


1970 


Pendleton 


Ghosh, Asoke K. 


1960 


Slife 


Gideon, Julius C. 


1955 


Bray 


Gieseking, John E. 


1934 


R.S.Smith 


Gillham, Robert W. 


1973 


Klute 


Gingrich, Joe R. 


1955 


Russell 


Goh, Kuan M. 


1969 


Stevenson 


Gonzalez, Juan 


1966 


Slife 


Goss, John R. 


1978 


Slife 


Gossett, Billy J. 


1962 


Jackobs 


Graffis, Don W. 


1960 


Bonnett 


Gray, Carl 


1953 


Bray 


Greder, Rodney R. 


1986 


Dudley 


Grossman, Robert B. 


1959 


Odell 


Guffy, Richard D. 


1987 


Hesketh 


Guhardja, Edi 


1975 


Hadley 


Gupta, Phool C. 


1970 


Jackobs 



162 



Gupta, Ram K. 


1970 


Millington 


Gupta, Satish C. 


1977 


Harlan 


Ha,Ji-Hong 


1984 


Cole 


Haderlie, Lloyd C. 


1975 


Slife 


Hadley, Henry H. 


1951 


Woodworth 


Haley, Louis E. 


1956 


Melsted 


Hane, John W. 


1981 


Welch 


Hannah, Lawrence H. 


1952 


Dungan 


Hanson, Peter M. 


1987 


Nickell 


Harris, Thomas S. 


1977 


Fehrenbacher 


Harrison, Robert L. 


1961 


Jugenheimer 


Harrison, Stephen A. 


1984 


Nickell 


Harrison, Steven K. 


1985 


Wax 


Harrison, Howard F., Jr. 


1980 


Slife 


Hartwig, Edgar E. 


1941 


Woodworth 


Hassan, Muhammad A. 


1961 


Bray 


Hauck, Roland D. 


1955 


Melsted 


Hay, Russell E., Jr. 


1948 


DeTurk 


Hayes, Robert M. 


1974 


Wax 


Hensley, Jerry R. 


1973 


Koeppe 


Herbek, James H. 


1970 


Pendleton 


Hicks, Dale R. 


1968 


Pendleton 


Hicks, Ronald J. 


1986 


Cole 


Hildebrand, David F. 


1982 


Hymowitz 


Hill, Walter A. 


1978 


Kurtz 


Hofmann, Frederick W. 


1926 


Woodworth 


Hohla, Gerald N. 


1976 


Jones 


Holbert, James R. 


1926 


Woodworth 


Hollowell, Eugene A. 


1928 


Burlison 


Hough, William S. 


1972 


Slife 


Houghton, John M. 


1973 


Slife 


Howey, Arden E. 


1982 


Brown 


Hsiao, Theodore C. 


1964 


Tyner 


Hsing, Yue-ie C. 


1988 


Rinne 


Hsu, Susan H. (Susan Hu) 


1970 


Hadley 


Hughes, Tom D. 


1969 


Welch 


Hutchinson, Gordon L. 


1973 


Peters 


Inselberg, Edgar 


1956 


Earley 


Iqbal, Muhammad 


1959 


Bray 


Islam, Mohammed A. 


1972 


Beavers 


Jacobs, Donald G. 


1958 


Gieseking 


Jain, Narender K. 


1961 


Pendleton 


Jellum, Milton D. 


1961 


Bonnett 


Jensen, Royal D. 


1965 


Klute 


John, Mathai K. 


1962 


Tyner 



163 



Johnson, Jay W. 


1972 


Kurtz 


Johnson, Leonard C. 


1965 


Klute 


Johnson, Paul R. 


1961 


Beavers 


Johnson, Walter L. 


1953 


Dungan 


Johnston, Taylor J. 


1968 


Pendleton 


Jokela, Jalmer J. 


1963 


Hadley 


Jones, Robert L. 


1962 


Beavers 


Jones, Vernon L. 


1982 


Graff is 


Jordan -Molero, Jaime E. 


1977 


Stoller 


Kahn, Joseph S. 


1958 


Hanson 


Katre, Ram K. 


1973 


Peters 


Kelley, Kenneth R. 


1984 


Stevenson 


Kelly, Scott N. 


1985 


Lambert 


Kennedy, William E. 


1951 


Dungan 


Ketcheson, John W. 


1956 


Kurtz 


Key, Joe L. 


1959 


Hanson 


Khanna, Shanti S. 


1960 


Bray 


Killmer, John L. 


1980 


Slife 


King, Frances B. 


1987 


deWet 


Klages, Karl H. W. 


1925 


Burlison 


Klein, Robert R. 


1984 


Koeppe 


Kleiss, Harold J. 


1972 


Fehrenbacher 


Klepper, Lowell A. 


1969 


Hageman 


Kloth, Reiner H. 


1985 


Hymowitz 


Knake, Ellery L. 


1960 


Slife 


Korczak, Jeannette F. 


1984 


Bernard 


Krueger, William A. 


1968 


Hanson 


Kurmarohita, Kunchit 


1973 


Tyner 


Kurtz, Lester T. 


1943 


DeTurk 


Labanauskas, Kazys C. 


1954 


Jackobs 


(Charles K. Labanauskas) 






Lambert, Robert J. 


1964 


Leng 


Lear, Paul R. 


1987 


Stucki 


Leasure, John K. 


1953 


Dungan 


Lee, Ching-Kwei 


1948 


Bray 


Leng, Earl R. 


1948 


Woodworth 


Letey, John, Jr. 


1959 


Klute 


Levings, Charles S., Ill 


1963 


D.E.Alexander 


Levy, Roger D. 


1973 


D.E.Alexander 


Leys, Andrew R. 


1984 


Slife 


Li, Lianjie 


1944 


R.S.Smith 


Lin, Mawsun 


1986 


Nelson 


Liu, Hou-Lee 


1948 


Woodworth 


Liu, Ming-Chin 


1969 


Hadley 


Liu, Pao-Hua 


1950 


Bonnett 


Lohse, John S. 


1979 


Fehrenbacher 



164 



Long, Raymond C. 


1966 


Wool ley 


Loussaert, Dale F. 


1975 


Hageman 


Loux, Mark M. 


1988 


Slife 


Lu, Hung-Shung 


1986 


Lambert 


Lueschen, William E. 


1968 


Hittle 


Lunt, Herbert A. 


1929 


DeTurk 


Lynch, Darrel L. 


1953 


Sears 


Lyons, Jerome C. 


1952 


Earley 


Ma, Ruh-Hwa 


1950 


Woodworth 


Macfarlane, Wallace 


1915 


Hopkins 


Magalhaes, Antonio C. N. 


1973 


Hageman 


Maglinao, Amado R. 


1977 


Peters 


Maier, Robert H. 


1954 


Earley 


Malhotra, Surjit S. 


1966 


Hanson 


Malik, Dalip S. 


1968 


Jackobs 


Malm, Norman R. 


1960 


Bonnett 


Marais, Jacobus S. 


1921 


Stewart 


Marcellos, Harry 


1971 


Peters 


Marfori, Ricardo T. 


1954 


Melsted 


Martin, Clifford K. 


1961 


Lang 


Martin, William C. 


1960 


Bonnett 


Marwat, Khan B. 


1988 


Nafziger 


Mastenbroek, Ingetje 


1983 


deWet 


(Ingetje Vanderaar) 






Matlock, Robert L. 


1931 


Burlison 


Matthews, Mark A. 


1983 


Boyer 


Matthiesen, Robert L. 


1976 


Stoller 


McBlain, Brian A. 


1984 


Bernard 


McBroom, Roger L. 


1980 


Hadley 


McCollum, Robert E. 


1957 


Tyner 


McGlamery, Marshal D. 


1965 


Slife 


Mcintosh, Maria S. 


1979 


D.A.Miller 


McKenzie, Eli, Jr. 


1975 


Kurtz 


McSweeney, Kevin 


1984 


Jansen 


McVickar, John S. 


1942 


R.S.Smith 


Meeker, Gabrielle B. 


1972 


Hageman 


Meghji, Moezali R. 


1984 


Dudley 


Mehrotra, Harihar N. 


1954 


Woodworth 


Meints, Vernon W. 


1975 


Kurtz 


Melsted, Sigurd W. 


1943 


DeTurk 


Melton, Billy A., Jr. 


1958 


Bonnett 


Menancio, Desiree 


1987 


Hymowitz 


Messmer, Mark J. 


1983 


Lambert 


Metzger, Robert J. 


1953 


Woodworth 


Miles, John W. 


1979 


Dudley 


Miller, Kathleen W. 


1985 


Cole 


Miller, Robert L. 


1982 


Dudley 



165 



Minor, Harry C. 

Mirasol, Jose J. 

Mirchandani, Hotchand C. 

Mishra, Mahesh M. 

Mizuno, Shoji 

Mokwunye, Augustine U. 

Moolani, Moti K. 

Moots, Craig K. 

Moreno-Gonzalez, Jesus F. 

Mortland, Max M. 

Motiramani, Dayal P. 

Motto, Harry L. 

Mueller, Elaine C. (Elaine Cowan) 

Mulvaney, Charlene S. 

Mulvaney, Richard L. 

Mumm, Walter J. 

Muncie, Fred W. 

Murdoch, Charles L. 

Musgrave, Robert B. 

Myers, Randy A. 

Nafziger, Emerson D. 
Naik, Shubhada M. 
Neill, James C. 
Nelson, Daniel R. 
Nelson, Jack L. 
Nelson, Randall L. 
Nelson, Richard S. 
Newell, Christine G. 
(Christine Grant) 
Newton, David W. 
Neyra, Carlos A. 
Nissly, Curtis R. 
Norman, Richard J. 
Nubel, Douglas S. 

O'Brien, Timothy J. 
Oathout, Charles H. 
Odell, Russell T. 
Olson, Lawrence C. 
Omueti, John A. I. 
Openshaw, Stephen J. 
Orf, James H. 
Ortega, Enrique 
Ortiz-Monasterio Rossa, J. Ivan 
Ottman, Michael J. 
Owen, Micheal D. 
Owens, Lowell D. 



1971 


Jackobs 


1920 


Stewart 


1949 


Bonnett 


1962 


Pendleton 


1988 


Boast 


1972 


Melsted 


1961 


Slife 


1985 


Nickell 


1978 


Dudley 


1951 


Gieseking 


1960 


Hageman 


1964 


Melsted 


1985 


Hageman 


1984 


Hageman 


1983 


Kurtz 


1940 


Dungan 


1915 


Soil Fertility 


1966 


Jackobs 


1940 


Burlison 


1986 


Stoller 


1982 


Slife 


1970 


Harlan 


1952 


Dungan 


1976 


Rinne 


1954 


Melsted 


1980 


Bernard 


1985 


Harper 


1973 


deWet 


1971 


Melsted 


1974 


Hageman 


1976 


Bernard 


1983 


Kurtz 


1988 


D.E.Alexander 


1967 


Hanson 


1927 


Burlison 


1948 


R.S.Smith 


1940 


DeTurk 


1976 


Jones 


1979 


Hadley 


1979 


Hymowitz 


1958 


Bray 


1987 


Jackobs 


1985 


Welch 


1982 


Slife 


1958 


Kurtz 



166 



Paden, William R. 


1929 


DeTurk 


Palaniappan, Subramania 


1972 


Peck 


Pamplin, Richard A. 


1963 


Bonnett 


Pandey, Ram K. 


1972 


Jackobs 


Pandya, Bindeshwari P. 


1969 


Leng 


Patel, Zaver H. 


1933 


Woodworth-DeTurk 


Paulson, Kenneth N. 


1968 


Kurtz 


Pendleton, John W. 


1955 


Dungan 


Peng, Ke-Ming 


1946 


DeTurk 


Perrier, Eugene R. 


1971 


Peters 


Pettigrew, William T. 


1988 


Hesketh 


Pettinger, Nicholas A. 


1927 


Woodworth 


Peverly, John H. 


1971 


RJ.Miller 


Pfeifer, Robert P. 


1949 


Woodworth 


Phu, Truong D. 


1967 


Tyner 


Pierre, Joseph J. 


1952 


Dungan 


Polisetty, Raghuveer 


1977 


Hageman 


Porter, Hedera L. 


1987 


deWet 


Porter, Paul M. 


1986 


Banwart 


Portz, Herbert L. 


1954 


Jackobs 


Prabuddham, Paiboon 


1975 


Tyner 


Prakash, Om 


1973 


Peters 


Prensky, Wolf 


1961 


Jackobs 


Price, Elbert Glen 


1973 


deWet 


Purvis, Albert C. 


1972 


Hageman 


Raats, Petrus A. C. 


1965 


Klute 


Ragus, Lolita N. 


1984 


Hadley 


(Lolita Nunez-Ragus) 






Rai, Sheo D. 


1970 


D.A.Miller 


Rauser, Wilfried E. 


1965 


Hanson 


Rawal, Kantilal M. 


1970 


Harlan 


Raymer, Paul L. 


1984 


Bernard 


Ready, Edgar L., Ill 


1979 


Slife 


Reed, Robert M. 


1952 


Earley 


Regnier, Emilie E. 


1987 


Stoller 


(Emilie R. Harrison) 






Reicosky, Donald C. 


1969 


Peters 


Reiss, William D. 


1968 


Jackobs 


Rice, James S. 


1971 


Dudley 


Richard, Edward P., Jr. 


1978 


Slife 


Rick, Susan K. 


1984 


Slife 


Riecken, Frank F. 


1941 


R.S.Smith 


Robles, Camilo 


1975 


Fehrenbacher 


Rode, Marvin W. 


1975 


Bernard 


Rogers, James S. 


1969 


Klute 


Rogers, Suzanne M. 


1987 


Widholm 


Romyn, Anton E. 


1922 


Burl i son 



167 



Rosenquist, Carl E. 


1930 


Woodworth 


Ross, John C. 


1916 


Corn Biochemistry 


Ross, William M. 


1952 


Bonnett 


Rothman, Paul G. 


1955 


Bonnett 


Roy, William R. 


1985 


Hassett 


Royer, Alto E. 


1951 


Bray 


Rubaihayo, Patrick R. 


1972 


Hadley 


Russel, Darrell A. 


1955 


Kurtz 


Rust, Richard H. 


1955 


Gieseking 


Sammons, David J. 


1978 


Hymowitz 


Saran, Ram N. 


1973 


Oschwald 


Savage, Scott M. 


1961 


Stevenson 


Sawyer, John E. 


1988 


Hoeft 


Schepers, James S. 


1973 


RJ.Miller 


Schmitt, Michael A. 


1985 


Hoeft 


Schoper, John B. 


1985 


Lambert 


Schrader, Lawrence E. 


1967 


Hageman 


Schultz, Ernest R. 


1919 


Corn Biochemistry 


Schweitzer, Lee E. 


1980 


Harper 


Sears, Ogle H. 


1928 


DeTurk 


Sebastian, Scott A. 


1984 


Nickell 


Sedgley, Ralph H. 


1967 


Klute 


Shah, Paighan 


1988 


Jackobs 


Shannon, Jack C. 


1962 


Hanson 


Sharma, Avdhesh K. 


1973 


Fehrenbacher 


Sharma, Sheo M. 


1973 


Thorne 


Sherwood, Lloyd V. 


1937 


Hottes 


Shrivastava, Jagdish P. 


1968 


Hittle 


Shubhada, Mohan N. 


1970 


Harlan 


Shulman, Milton D. 


1954 


Sears 


Siemer, Eugene G. 


1964 

i 


Leng 


Sieveking, Earl G. 


1928 


DeTurk 


Sikora, Frank J. 


1986 


Stevenson 


Siminoff, Paul 


1951 


Sears 


Simpson, Daniel M. H. 


1961 


Melsted 


Singh, Bir B. 


1967 


Hadley 


Singh, Chhidda 


1969 


Leng 


Singh, Laxman 


1969 


Hadley 


Singh, Maharaj 


1966 


Peters 


Singh, Mahendra 


1975 


Widholm 


Sinha, Ram D. 


1963 


Jackobs 


Slife, Fred W. 


1952 


Dungan 


Smeck, Neil E. 


1970 


Runge 


Smith, Craig R. 


1987 


Vasilas 


Smith, Guy D. 


1940 


R.S.Smith 


Smith, Harold M. 


1953 


Dungan 


Smith, James R. 


1986 


Nelson 



168 



Smith, Roy J. , Jr. 

Sobhan-Ardakani, Mohammad 

Sockness, Bradley A. 

Somerville, Shauna C. 

Soong, Tai-Sen T. 

Spencer, William F. 

Spiss, Ludwik 

Spurrier, Earl C. 

Srinives, Peerasak 

Stahlhut, Roy W. 

Stalker, Harold T., Jr. 

Starnes, William J. 

Stauffer, Russell S. 

Stewart, Robert 

Stinson, Charles H. 

Stoner, Clinton D. 

Stovall, Iris K. 

Stubblefield, Frank M. 

Stubbs, Cynthia L. 

Sukthumrong, Aschan 

Swan, Dean G. 

Swanson, Merrill R. 

Swen, Moses Sing 

Tandon, Hari L. S. 
Taylor, Aston R. 
Tedia, Meghdatt 
Thicke, Francis E. 
Thompson, Lafayette, Jr. 
Thompson, Ronald P. 
Threewitt, Thomas B. 
Tilo, Santiago N. 
Touchton, Joseph T. 
Tucker, Billy B. 
Tucker, Thomas Curtis 
Twersky, Marvin 

Ulrich, Thomas H. 

Van Doren, Cornelius A. 
Vanden Heuvel, Richard M. 
Vaughan, Duncan A. 
Veatch, Collins 
Velovitch, Joseph J. 
Verma, Om P. 
Vibar, Toribio 
Vinande, Roger A. 



1955 


Slife 


1971 


Stevenson 


1988 


Dudley 


1981 


Ogren 


1978 


Hageman 


1952 


Gieseking 


1968 


Hittle 


1956 


Jackobs 


1980 


Hadley 


1987 


Widholm 


1977 


Harlan 


1964 


Hadley 


1933 


R.S.Smith 


1909 


Hopkins 


1943 


DeTurk 


1965 


Hanson 


1978 


Cole 


1942 


DeTurk 


1988 


Stevenson 


1975 


Tyner 


1964 


Slife 


1971 


Carmer 


1933 


Woodworth 


1968 


Kurtz 


1953 


Dungan 


1976 


Hittle 


1988 


Hoeft 


1970 


Slife 


1974 


Slife 


1971 


Slife 


1965 


Stevenson 


1977 


Hoeft-Welch 


1955 


Kurtz 


1955 


Kurtz 


1964 


Peters 


1980 


Widholm 


1933 


Bonnett 


1986 


Hoeft 


1986 


Bernard 


1929 


Woodworth 


1983 


Slife 


1973 


Boast 


1923 


Burlison 


1976 


Walker 



169 



Wahua, Timothy A. 
Walker, John D. 
Wan, Hsiung 
Wang, Maw S. 
Waranyuwat, Aree 
Warner, Robert L. 
Watkins, Phillip W. 
Watson, Stanley A. 
Weeks, Donald P. 
Wei, Lun-Shin 
Weinard, Frederick F. 
Wells, Gary N. 
West, Sherlie H. 
Westerman, Robert L. 
Westgate, Mark E. 
Whatley, Laura L. M. 
Whisler, Frank D. 
Whiting, Albert L. 
Wilding, Lawrence P. 
Wilkinson, Guy E. 
Williams, Charles S. 
Williams, Leonard F. 
Williams, Mark E. 
Williams, Miles C. 
Willman, Mark R. 
Willmot, David B. 
Wilson, Charles A. 
Wilson, Harold K. 
Wilson, Richard F. 
Wimer, David C. 
Winter, Floyd L. 
Winters, Eric, Jr. 
Wood, Lynne K. 
Wyatt, Frank A. 

Yonce, Henry D. 
York, Alan C. 



1976 


D.A.Miller 


1973 


Slife 


1965 


Hadley 


1959 


Kurtz 


1976 


Cooper 


1968 


Hageman 


1961 


Bonnett 


1949 


DeTurk 


1967 


Hanson 


1958 


Bray 


1922 


Hottes 


1971 


Hageman 


1958 


Slife 


1969 


Kurtz 


1984 


Boyer 


1982 


Slife 


1964 


Klute 


1912 


Hopkins-Pettit 


1962 


Odell 


1960 


Klute 


1984 


Wax 


1938 


Woodworth 


1988 


Widholm 


1956 


Slife 


1986 


Lambert 


1988 


Nickell 


1962 


Bray 


1927 


Hottes 


1975 


Rinne 


1933 


R.S.Smith 


1928 


Woodworth 


1938 


R.S.Smith 


1941 


DeTurk 


1915 


Hopkins 


1972 


Slife 


1979 


Slife 



Zanoni, Urs 



1988 



Dudley 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBAN* 



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